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Special Issue "Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr Benoit Gosselin

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Université Laval, Québec (Québec) G1V 0A6, Canada
Fax: +1 418 656-3159
Interests: VLSI circuits for bioinstrumentation; wireless biosensors; implantable electronics; brain computer interfaces; and low-power analog/mixed-mode integrated circuits

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advancement in wireless technology and micro/nano-fabrication techniques have created a tremendous opportunity for using miniaturized wireless microelectronic devices in novel point-of-care diagnostic and prosthetic systems for a variety of health and life science applications. These new devices take advantage of miniaturized sensor technology to interface directly with complex biological structures like tissues, cells and molecules. For example, micro-electro-mechanical systems, such as microelectrode arrays and microfluidic channels, allow the study of neurons and manipulation of blood cells, while microlenses are used in low-cost fluorescence imagers. Other emerging devices, like brain machine interfaces, are opening up new opportunities to gain a better understanding of the root causes of several neuronal disorders, like the Parkinson’s disease, by extracting important biological parameters in freely moving animals. Such microsystems typically combine one or several application-specific integrated circuits with various sensor technologies into lightweight and self-contained formats that can easily be worn or implanted in the body to offer a very high level of functionality. The key requirements from such systems are: the extraction, the analysis, and the transmission of biological data in real time with excellent signal quality through a wireless connection. They are typically powered by a small battery, or by an inductive link, the power transmitter for which is external to the body, requiring extremely low power consumption to maximize the operational life expectancy.

Dr. Benoit Gosselin
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Wireless Optogenetic Headstage with Multichannel Electrophysiological Recording Capability
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22776-22797; doi:10.3390/s150922776
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 29 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a small and lightweight fully wireless optogenetic headstage capable of optical neural stimulation and electrophysiological recording. The headstage is suitable for conducting experiments with small transgenic rodents, and features two implantable fiber-coupled light-emitting diode (LED) and two electrophysiological recording channels. [...] Read more.
We present a small and lightweight fully wireless optogenetic headstage capable of optical neural stimulation and electrophysiological recording. The headstage is suitable for conducting experiments with small transgenic rodents, and features two implantable fiber-coupled light-emitting diode (LED) and two electrophysiological recording channels. This system is powered by a small lithium-ion battery and is entirely built using low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components for better flexibility, reduced development time and lower cost. Light stimulation uses customizable stimulation patterns of varying frequency and duty cycle. The optical power that is sourced from the LED is delivered to target light-sensitive neurons using implantable optical fibers, which provide a measured optical power density of 70 mW/mm2 at the tip. The headstage is using a novel foldable rigid-flex printed circuit board design, which results into a lightweight and compact device. Recording experiments performed in the cerebral cortex of transgenic ChR2 mice under anesthetized conditions show that the proposed headstage can trigger neuronal activity using optical stimulation, while recording microvolt amplitude electrophysiological signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Wireless and Simultaneous Detections of Multiple Bio-Molecules in a Single Sensor Using Love Wave Biosensor
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21660-21675; doi:10.3390/s141121660
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Love wave-based biosensor with a 440 MHz center frequency was developed for the simultaneous detection of two different analytes of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a single sensor. The developed biosensor consists of one-port surface [...] Read more.
A Love wave-based biosensor with a 440 MHz center frequency was developed for the simultaneous detection of two different analytes of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a single sensor. The developed biosensor consists of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay lines on a 41° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) waveguide layer, and two different sensitive films. The Love wave biosensor was wirelessly characterized using two antennas and a network analyzer. The binding of the analytes to the sensitive layers induced a large change in the time positions of the original reflection peaks mainly due to the mass loading effect. The assessed time shifts in the reflection peaks were matched well with the predicted values from coupling of mode (COM) modeling. The sensitivities evaluated from the sensitive films were ~15 deg/µg/mL for the rabbit IgG and ~1.8 deg/ng/mL for COMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle An Arch-Shaped Intraoral Tongue Drive System with Built-in Tongue-Computer Interfacing SoC
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21565-21587; doi:10.3390/s141121565
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
PDF Full-text (2910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user’s mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw [...] Read more.
We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user’s mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects’ performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Simulation of the Recharging Method of Implantable Biosensors Based on a Wearable Incoherent Light Source
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 20687-20701; doi:10.3390/s141120687
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recharging implantable electronics from the outside of the human body is very important for applications such as implantable biosensors and other implantable electronics. In this paper, a recharging method for implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source has been proposed [...] Read more.
Recharging implantable electronics from the outside of the human body is very important for applications such as implantable biosensors and other implantable electronics. In this paper, a recharging method for implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source has been proposed and simulated. Firstly, we develop a model of the incoherent light source and a multi-layer model of skin tissue. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated and tested experimentally, whereby some important conclusions have been reached. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method for implantable biosensors, which should promote the application of implantable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19700-19712; doi:10.3390/s141019700
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With [...] Read more.
A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Novel Wireless-Communicating Textiles Made from Multi-Material and Minimally-Invasive Fibers
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19260-19274; doi:10.3390/s141019260
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless [...] Read more.
The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Wireless Integrated Biosensors for Point-of-Care Diagnostic Applications
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3236-3261; doi:10.3390/s150203236
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 2 February 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in integrated biosensors, wireless communication and power harvesting techniques are enticing researchers into spawning a new breed of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that have attracted significant interest from industry. Among these, it is the ones equipped with wireless capabilities that [...] Read more.
Recent advances in integrated biosensors, wireless communication and power harvesting techniques are enticing researchers into spawning a new breed of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that have attracted significant interest from industry. Among these, it is the ones equipped with wireless capabilities that drew our attention in this review paper. Indeed, wireless POC devices offer a great advantage, that of the possibility of exerting continuous monitoring of biologically relevant parameters, metabolites and other bio-molecules, relevant to the management of various morbid diseases such as diabetes, brain cancer, ischemia, and Alzheimer’s. In this review paper, we examine three major categories of miniaturized integrated devices, namely; the implantable Wireless Bio-Sensors (WBSs), the wearable WBSs and the handheld WBSs. In practice, despite the aforesaid progress made in developing wireless platforms, early detection of health imbalances remains a grand challenge from both the technological and the medical points of view. This paper addresses such challenges and reports the state-of-the-art in this interdisciplinary field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)

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