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Special Issue "5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Yousaf Bin Zikria

Yeungnam University, South Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: IoT, 5G, wireless communications and networks, opportunistic communications, wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, cognitive radio ad hoc networks
Guest Editor
Dr. Sung Won Kim

Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeungsan, Gyeungbuk 38541, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: resource management; wireless networks; mobile networks; performance evaluation; embedded systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Muhammad Khalil Afzal

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 5G; wireless sensor networks; ad hoc networks; reliability in multicasting; cooperative networks
Guest Editor
Dr. Haoxiang Wang

GoPerception Laboratory, Cornell University, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: multimedia information processing; pattern recognition and machine learning; remote sensing image processing and data-driven business intelligence
Guest Editor
Dr. Mubashir Husain Rehmani

Telecommunications Software and Systems Group (TSSG), Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cognitive radio ad hoc networks; smart grid; wireless energy transfer; flying ad-hoc networks; wireless sensor networks; mobile ad hoc networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The explosion of mobile data traffic, rapid increase in connecting devices, everything in the cloud, hyper-realistic media for converged services, and knowledge as a service enabled by big data analysis are the five megatrends of mobile services in 5G networks. User expectations are high with upcoming 5G. In order to fulfill the future demands, there exists a need to explore issues like virtual/augmented reality, massive content streaming, telepresence, user-centric computing, crowded area services, smart personal networks, smart buildings, and smart cities.

5G is a continued effort toward rich ubiquitous communication infrastructure, promising services that are public (e.g., surveillance, security and safety), omnipresent (e.g., IoT), and immersive (e.g., virtual/augmented reality). Moreover, intelligence (e.g., user centric computing) and autonomy (e.g., smart transportation, robots and drones) are of equal importance for such services. In general, requirements are service specific. However, closely observing the nature of such services, high reliability and ultra-low latency are identified as primary requirements for most of these. High data rates, energy efficiency, cost, high mobility and massive connection are among other requirements for 5G services. Moreover, need for resilient, robust and high survivability infrastructure is necessary to cope with disastrous situations.

This Special Issue focuses on the most recent advances in interdisciplinary research areas encompassing the 5G domain. This Special issue will bring together researchers from diverse fields and specialization, such as communication engineering, computer engineering, computer science, information technology, bio-medical and mathematics. We invite researchers from industry, academia and government organization to discuss challenging ideas and novel research contributions, demonstrate results, and share standardization efforts on the 5G and related areas.

Topics of interest include, but not limited to the following:

  • Immersive 5G Service
    • Virtual/ Augmented Reality
    • Massive Contents streaming
    • Telepresence
  • Intelligent 5G Service
    • User-centric Computing
    • Crowded Area Service
    • Edge/FOG Computing
  • Omnipresent 5G Service
    • Smart Personal Devices
    • Smart Health
    • Smart Building
    • Smart Grid
    • Smart City
    • Smart Factory Systems
  • Autonomous 5G service
    • Smart Transportation
    • Drone-based 3D connectivity
    • Robot-based Service
    • Teleoperation
  • Public 5G Services
    • Private security and Public Safety
    • Disaster Monitoring
    • Emergency Service

Dr. Yousaf Bin Zikria
Dr. Sung Won Kim
Dr. Muhammad Khalil Afzal
Dr. Haoxiang Wang
Dr. Mubashir Husain Rehmani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Immersive 5G Service
  • Intelligent 5G Service
  • Omnipresent 5G Service
  • Autonomous 5G service
  • Public 5G Services

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Periodic Caching Strategy Solution for the Smart City in Information-Centric Internet of Things
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072576
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Named Data Networking is an evolving network model of the Information-centric networking (ICN) paradigm which provides Named-based data contents. In-network caching is the responsible for dissemination of these contents in a scalable and cost-efficient way. Due to the rapid expansion of Internet of
[...] Read more.
Named Data Networking is an evolving network model of the Information-centric networking (ICN) paradigm which provides Named-based data contents. In-network caching is the responsible for dissemination of these contents in a scalable and cost-efficient way. Due to the rapid expansion of Internet of Things (IoT) traffic, ICN is envisioned to be an appropriate architecture to maintain the IoT networks. In fact, ICN offers unique naming, multicast communications and, most beneficially, in-network caching that minimizes the response latency and server load. IoT environment involves a study of ICN caching policies in terms of content placement strategies. This paper addressed the caching strategies with the aim to recognize which caching strategy is the most suitable for IoT networks. Simulation results show the impact of different IoT ICN-based caching strategies, out of these; periodic caching is the most appropriate strategy for IoT environments in terms of stretch that results in decreasing the retrieval latency and improves the cache-hit ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle Cloud–Fog–Based Smart Grid Model for Efficient Resource Management
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062079
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
PDF Full-text (591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A smart grid (SG) is a modernized electric grid that enhances the reliability, efficiency, sustainability, and economics of electricity services. Moreover, it plays a vital role in modern energy infrastructure. The core challenge faced by SGs is how to efficiently utilize different kinds
[...] Read more.
A smart grid (SG) is a modernized electric grid that enhances the reliability, efficiency, sustainability, and economics of electricity services. Moreover, it plays a vital role in modern energy infrastructure. The core challenge faced by SGs is how to efficiently utilize different kinds of front-end smart devices, such as smart meters and power assets, and in what manner to process the enormous volume of data received from these devices. Furthermore, cloud and fog computing provide on-demand resources for computation, which is a good solution to overcome SG hurdles. Fog-based cloud computing has numerous good characteristics, such as cost-saving, energy-saving, scalability, flexibility, and agility. Resource management is one of the big issues in SGs. In this paper, we propose a cloud–fog–based model for resource management in SGs. The key idea of the proposed work is to determine a hierarchical structure of cloud–fog computing to provide different types of computing services for SG resource management. Regarding the performance enhancement of cloud computing, different load balancing techniques are used. For load balancing between an SG user’s requests and service providers, five algorithms are implemented: round robin, throttled, artificial bee colony (ABC), ant colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization. Moreover, we propose a hybrid approach of ACO and ABC known as hybrid artificial bee ant colony optimization (HABACO). Simulation results show that our proposed technique HABACO outperformed the other techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle An Admission Control Mechanism for 5G LWA
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061999
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
PDF Full-text (2142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To alleviate the spectrum scarcity problem in fifth-generation (5G) networks, traditional mobile data offloading schemes from long term evolution (LTE) to wireless local area networks (WLANs) have been revised by the third-generation partnership project (3GPP) in release 13, which is known as LTE-WLAN
[...] Read more.
To alleviate the spectrum scarcity problem in fifth-generation (5G) networks, traditional mobile data offloading schemes from long term evolution (LTE) to wireless local area networks (WLANs) have been revised by the third-generation partnership project (3GPP) in release 13, which is known as LTE-WLAN aggregation (LWA). With LWA, user equipment units (UEs) supporting both LTE and WLAN can utilize both LTE and WLAN links simultaneously. Thus, UEs under the coverage of an LWA network will be surrounded by multiple standards, such as LTE, WLAN, and LWA, along with cells of different sizes and coverage. Providing the LWA service to all UEs unconditionally may lead to serious intra-cell unfairness, degradation of system-level quality of service (QoS), and a reduction in system resource utilization. Hence, to resolve this issue, two important challenges need to be addressed: Which LTE UEs should be transferred, and how many LTE UEs need to be transferred. In this paper, we propose a user-offloading algorithm for evolved node B (eNB) hardware that smartly allocates the deprived LTE UEs and assigns the LWA service to an optimal number of UEs without degrading the QoS for existing WLAN UEs. With this proposed scheme, all LWA-preferred UEs with poor LTE performance and a good WLAN condition have the opportunity to access LWA service to improve performance. We show that the proposed scheme maximizes the throughput performance of the whole network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Channel Capacity Analysis of Cooperative Networks Using Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP)
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061983
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Cooperative communication (CC) is one of the best solutions to overcome channel fading and to improve channel capacity. However, most of the researchers evaluate its performance based on mathematical modeling or by simulations. These approaches are often unable to successfully capture many real-world
[...] Read more.
Cooperative communication (CC) is one of the best solutions to overcome channel fading and to improve channel capacity. However, most of the researchers evaluate its performance based on mathematical modeling or by simulations. These approaches are often unable to successfully capture many real-world radio signal propagation problems. Hardware based wireless communication test-bed provides reliable and accurate measurements, which are not attainable through other means. This research work investigates experimental performance analysis of CC over direct communication (DC) in the lab environment. The experimental setup is built using Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) and Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW). A text message is transmitted by using Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulation schemes. The setup uses amplify and forward (AF) relaying mode and two time slot transmission protocols. The maximum ratio combining (MRC) technique is used for combining SNR at the receiver. Channel capacity analysis is performed in order to evaluate the performance of CC over DC with and without obstacle. Moreover, optimal position of the relay is also analyzed by varying the position of the relay. Extensive experiments are carried out in the lab environment to evaluate the performance of the system for different hardware setups. The results reveal that cooperative communication attains significant improvement in terms of channel capacity of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle Sum Utilization of Spectrum with Spectrum Handoff and Imperfect Sensing in Interweave Multi-Channel Cognitive Radio Networks
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061764
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Fifth-generation (5G) heterogeneous network deployment poses new challenges for 5G-based cognitive radio networks (5G-CRNs) as the primary user (PU) is required to be more active because of the small cells, random user arrival, and spectrum handoff. Interweave CRNs (I-CRNs) improve spectrum utilization by
[...] Read more.
Fifth-generation (5G) heterogeneous network deployment poses new challenges for 5G-based cognitive radio networks (5G-CRNs) as the primary user (PU) is required to be more active because of the small cells, random user arrival, and spectrum handoff. Interweave CRNs (I-CRNs) improve spectrum utilization by allowing opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) for secondary users (SUs). The sum utilization of spectrum, i.e., joint utilization of spectrum by the SU and PU, depends on the spatial and temporal variations of PU activities, sensing outcomes, transmitting conditions, and spectrum handoff. In this study, we formulate and analyze the sum utilization of spectrum with different sets of channels under different PU and SU co-existing network topologies. We consider realistic multi-channel scenarios for the SU, with each channel licensed to a PU. The SU, aided by spectrum handoff, is authorized to utilize the channels on the basis of sensing outcomes and PU interruptions. The numerical evaluation of the proposed work is presented under different network and sensing parameters. Moreover, the sum utilization gain is investigated to analyze the sensitivities of different sensing parameters. It is demonstrated that different sets of channels, PU activities, and sensing outcomes have a significant impact on the sum utilization of spectrum associated with a specific network topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle Computation Offloading Algorithm for Arbitrarily Divisible Applications in Mobile Edge Computing Environments: An OCR Case
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051611
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Divisible applications are a class of tasks whose loads can be partitioned into some smaller fractions, and each part can be executed independently by a processor. A wide variety of divisible applications have been found in the area of parallel and distributed processing.
[...] Read more.
Divisible applications are a class of tasks whose loads can be partitioned into some smaller fractions, and each part can be executed independently by a processor. A wide variety of divisible applications have been found in the area of parallel and distributed processing. This paper addresses the problem of how to partition and allocate divisible applications to available resources in mobile edge computing environments with the aim of minimizing the completion time of the applications. A theoretical model was proposed for partitioning an entire divisible application according to the load of the application and the capabilities of available resources, and the solutions were derived in closed form. Both simulations and real experiments were carried out to justify this model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle A Performance Analysis Model of TCP over Multiple Heterogeneous Paths for 5G Mobile Services
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051337
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 22 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Driven by the primary requirement of emerging 5G mobile services, the demand for concurrent multipath transfer (CMT) is still prominent. Yet, multipath transport protocols are not widely adopted and CMT schemes based on Transport Control Protocol (TCP) will still be in dominant position
[...] Read more.
Driven by the primary requirement of emerging 5G mobile services, the demand for concurrent multipath transfer (CMT) is still prominent. Yet, multipath transport protocols are not widely adopted and CMT schemes based on Transport Control Protocol (TCP) will still be in dominant position in 5G. However, the performance of TCP flow transferred over multiple heterogeneous paths is prone to the link quality asymmetry, the extent of which was revealed to be significant by our field investigation. In this paper, we present a performance analysis model for TCP over multiple heterogeneous paths in 5G scenarios, where both bandwidth and delay asymmetry are taken into consideration. The evaluation using large-scale simulation and field experiment shows that the proposed model can achieve high accuracy in practical environments. Some interesting inferences can be drawn from the proposed model, such as the dominant factors that affect the performance of TCP over heterogeneous networks, and the criteria of determining the appropriate number of links to be used under different circumstances of path heterogeneity. Thus, the proposed model can provide a guidance to the design of TCP-based CMT solutions for 5G mobile services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle 5G-Based Transmission Power Control Mechanism in Fog Computing for Internet of Things Devices
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041258
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fog computing has become the revolutionary paradigm and one of the intelligent services of the 5th Generation (5G) emerging network, while Internet of Things (IoT) lies under its main umbrella. Enhancing and optimizing the quality of service (QoS) in Fog computing networks is
[...] Read more.
Fog computing has become the revolutionary paradigm and one of the intelligent services of the 5th Generation (5G) emerging network, while Internet of Things (IoT) lies under its main umbrella. Enhancing and optimizing the quality of service (QoS) in Fog computing networks is one of the critical challenges of the present. In the meantime, strong links between the Fog, IoT devices and the supporting back-end servers is done through large scale cloud data centers and with the linear exponential trend of IoT devices and voluminous generated data. Fog computing is one of the vital and potential solutions for IoT in close connection with things and end users with less latency but due to high computational complexity, less storage capacity and more power drain in the cloud it is inappropriate choice. So, to remedy this issue, we propose transmission power control (TPC) based QoS optimization algorithm named (QoS-TPC) in the Fog computing. Besides, we propose the Fog-IoT-TPC-QoS architecture and establish the connection between TPC and Fog computing by considering static and dynamic conditions of wireless channel. Experimental results examine that proposed QoS-TPC optimizes the QoS in terms of maximum throughput, less delay, less jitter and minimum energy drain as compared to the conventional that is, ATPC, SKims and constant TPC methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle A Self-Scrutinized Backoff Mechanism for IEEE 802.11ax in 5G Unlicensed Networks
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041201
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The IEEE 802.11ax high-efficiency wireless local area network (HEW) is promising as a foundation for evolving the fifth-generation (5G) radio access network on unlicensed bands (5G-U). 5G-U is a continued effort toward rich ubiquitous communication infrastructures, promising faster and reliable services for the
[...] Read more.
The IEEE 802.11ax high-efficiency wireless local area network (HEW) is promising as a foundation for evolving the fifth-generation (5G) radio access network on unlicensed bands (5G-U). 5G-U is a continued effort toward rich ubiquitous communication infrastructures, promising faster and reliable services for the end user. HEW is likely to provide four times higher network efficiency even in highly dense network deployments. However, the current wireless local area network (WLAN) itself faces huge challenge of efficient radio access due to its contention-based nature. WLAN uses a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) procedure in medium access control (MAC) protocols, which is based on a binary exponential backoff (BEB) mechanism. Blind increase and decrease of the contention window in BEB limits the performance of WLAN to a limited number of contenders, thus affecting end-user quality of experience. In this paper, we identify future use cases of HEW proposed for 5G-U networks. We use a self-scrutinized channel observation-based scaled backoff (COSB) mechanism to handle the high-density contention challenges. Furthermore, a recursive discrete-time Markov chain model (R-DTMC) is formulated to analyze the performance efficiency of the proposed solution. The analytical and simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can improve user experience in 5G-U networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle Tradeoff between User Quality-Of-Experience and Service Provider Profit in 5G Cloud Radio Access Network
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2127; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112127
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the Cloud Radio Access Network (CRAN) has become a promising solution for increasing network capacity in terms of high data rates and low latencies for fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks. In CRAN, the traditional base stations (BSs) are decoupled into remote
[...] Read more.
In recent years, the Cloud Radio Access Network (CRAN) has become a promising solution for increasing network capacity in terms of high data rates and low latencies for fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks. In CRAN, the traditional base stations (BSs) are decoupled into remote radio heads (RRHs) and base band units (BBUs) that are respectively responsible for radio and baseband functionalities. The RRHs are geographically proximated whereas the the BBUs are pooled in a centralized cloud named BBU pool. This virtualized architecture facilitates the system to offer high computation and communication loads from the impetuous rise of mobile devices and applications. Heterogeneous service requests from the devices to different RRHs are now sent to the BBUs to process centrally. Meeting the baseband processing of heterogeneous requests while keeping their Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements with the limited computational resources as well as enhancing service provider profit is a challenging multi-constraint problem. In this work, a multi-objective non-linear programming solution to the Quality-of-Experience (QoE) and Profit-aware Resource Allocation problem is developed which makes a trade-off in between the two. Two computationally viable scheduling algorithms, named First Fit Satisfaction and First Fit Profit algorithms, are developed to focus on maximization of user QoE and profit, respectively, while keeping the minimum requirement level for the other one. The simulation environment is built on a relevant simulation toolkit. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system outperforms state-of-the-art works well across the requests QoS, average waiting time, user QoE, and service provider profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle What is 5G? Emerging 5G Mobile Services and Network Requirements
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101848
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, emerging 5G mobile services are investigated and categorized from the perspective of not service providers, but end-users. The development of 5G mobile services is based on an intensive analysis of the global trends in mobile services. Additionally, several indispensable service
[...] Read more.
In this paper, emerging 5G mobile services are investigated and categorized from the perspective of not service providers, but end-users. The development of 5G mobile services is based on an intensive analysis of the global trends in mobile services. Additionally, several indispensable service requirements, essential for realizing service scenarios presented, are described. To illustrate the changes in societies and in daily life in the 5G era, five megatrends, including the explosion of mobile data traffic, the rapid increase in connected devices, everything on the cloud, hyper-realistic media for convergence services and knowledge as a service enabled by big-data analysis, are examined. Based on such trends, we classify the new 5G services into five categories in terms of the end-users’ experience as follows: immersive 5G services, intelligent 5G services, omnipresent 5G services, autonomous 5G services and public 5G services. Moreover, several 5G service scenarios in each service category are presented, and essential technical requirements for realizing the aforementioned 5G services are suggested, along with a competitiveness analysis on 5G services/devices/network industries and the current condition of 5G technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Mobile Services and Scenarios: Challenges and Solutions)
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