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Special Issue "Symmetry in Secure Cyber World"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Young-Sik Jeong

Department of Multimedia Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Cloud computing, Ubiquitous computing, Internet of Things and M2M, Cyber physical system , Ubiquitous intelligent systems, Smart appliances
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Laurence T. Yang

Department of Computer Science, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, NS, B2G 2W5, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: applied cryptography and security; ubiquiitous computing; parallel and distributed systems and intelligent systems
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefanos Gritzalis

Laboratory of Information and Communication Systems Security (Info-Sec-Lab), Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, Samos, GR-83200, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +30 22730 82234
Interests: asymetric-key infrastructure; computer networks and security, and cloud computing security and privacy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent advances of symmetry theory in Secure Cyber World (SCW) have posed great challenges to information technology. Together with these trends, advanced applied cryptography and security have become a growing issue as well as an indispensable research topic for the future of computing and communications. For applied cryptography and advanced security services, many researchers and developers would like to apply symmetry theories and technologies, that is, the rules of a formal system as a mathematical pattern of self-similarity such as reflection, rotational, translational, point reflection and other involutive isometrics, and so on. The detailed discussion of the research issues of applied cryptography and advanced security concerns based on symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography covers, amongst others: confidentiality, integrity, and availability, including the various areas of applications. In particular, these topics will be the most comprehensive field focused on the important aspects of advanced models, technologies, applications and services for SCW.

This Special Issue aims to provide an advanced theory and application for researchers and practitioners to contribute with original research and review articles that present the state-of-the-art research outcomes, practical results, latest findings and future evolutions of mathematics in applied cryptosystems and security concerns based on symmetry for SCW.  Original and research articles are solicited in all aspects, including: theoretical studies, practical applications, new techniques and experimental prototypes. All submitted papers will be peer-reviewed and selected on the basis of both their quality and their relevance to the theme of this Special Issue.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Applied cryptosystem based on symmetry for SCW
  • Advanced symmetric key cryptosystem
  • Advanced asymmetric key cryptosystem
  • Symmetry in security services for SCW
  • Symmetry in security applications for SCW
  • Symmetry in network and embedded system security
  • Methods for improving efficiency or accuracy in security for SCW
  • Cryptography algorithms in smart devices for SCW
  • Secure and trusted service framework and architectures for SCW
  • Computational models of secure communication mechanisms for SCW
  • Privacy-enhancing technology for SCW
  • Access control for SCW
  • Security protocols for SCW
  • Other symmetry issues in applied cryptography and security concerns for SCW

Prof. Dr. Young-Sik Jeong
Prof. Dr. Laurence T. Yang
Prof. Dr. Stefanos Gritzalis
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • applied cryptosystem
  • symmetric key
  • asymmetric key
  • symmetry in security

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Detecting Sybil Attacks in Cloud Computing  Environments Based on Fail‐Stop Signature
Symmetry 2017, 9(3), 35; doi:10.3390/sym9030035
Received: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the loosely coupled property of cloud computing environments, no node has complete knowledge of the system. For this reason, detecting a Sybil attack in cloud computing environments is a non‐trivial task. In such a dynamic system, the use of algorithms based
[...] Read more.
Due to the loosely coupled property of cloud computing environments, no node has complete knowledge of the system. For this reason, detecting a Sybil attack in cloud computing environments is a non‐trivial task. In such a dynamic system, the use of algorithms based on tree or ring structures for collecting the global state of the system has unfortunate downsides, that is, the structure should be re‐constructed in the presence of node joining and leaving. In this paper, we propose an unstructured Sybil attack detection algorithm in cloud computing environments. Our proposed algorithm uses one‐to‐one communication primitives rather than broadcast primitives and, therefore, the message complexity can be reduced. In our algorithmic design, attacker nodes forging multiple identities are effectively detected by normal nodes with the fail‐stop signature scheme. We show that, regardless of the number of attacker nodes, our Sybil attack detection algorithm is able to reach consensus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Data-Filtering System to Avoid Total Data Distortion in IoT Networking
Symmetry 2017, 9(1), 16; doi:10.3390/sym9010016
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 25 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
PDF Full-text (2554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the Internet of Things (IoT) networking, numerous objects are connected to a network. They sense events and deliver the sensed information to the cloud. A lot of data is generated in the IoT network, and servers in the cloud gather the sensed
[...] Read more.
In the Internet of Things (IoT) networking, numerous objects are connected to a network. They sense events and deliver the sensed information to the cloud. A lot of data is generated in the IoT network, and servers in the cloud gather the sensed data from the objects. Then, the servers analyze the collected data and provide proper intelligent services to users through the results of the analysis. When the server analyzes the collected data, if there exists malfunctioning data, distortional results of the analysis will be generated. The distortional results lead to misdirection of the intelligent services, leading to poor user experience. In the analysis for intelligent services in IoT, malfunctioning data should be avoided because integrity of the collected data is crucial. Therefore, this paper proposes a data-filtering system for the server in the cloud. The proposed data-filtering system is placed in front of the server and firstly receives the sensed data from the objects. It employs the naïve Bayesian classifier and, by learning, classifies the malfunctioning data from among the collected data. Data with integrity is delivered to the server for analysis. Because the proposed system filters the malfunctioning data, the server can obtain accurate analysis results and reduce computing load. The performance of the proposed data-filtering system is evaluated through computer simulation. Through the simulation results, the efficiency of the proposed data-filtering system is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Asymmetric Cipher Based on Matrix Power Function with Provable Security
Symmetry 2017, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/sym9010009
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 7 January 2017
PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The improved version of the author’s previously declared asymmetric cipher protocol based on matrix power function (MPF) is presented. Proposed modification avoids discrete logarithm attack (DLA) which could be applied to the previously declared protocol. This attack allows us to transform the initial
[...] Read more.
The improved version of the author’s previously declared asymmetric cipher protocol based on matrix power function (MPF) is presented. Proposed modification avoids discrete logarithm attack (DLA) which could be applied to the previously declared protocol. This attack allows us to transform the initial system of MPF equations to so-called matrix multivariate quadratic (MMQ) system of equations, which is a system representing a subclass of multivariate quadratic (MQ) systems of equations. We are making a conjecture that avoidance of DLA in protocol, presented here, should increase its security, since an attempt to solve the initial system of MPF equations would appear to be no less complex than solving the system of MMQ equations. No algorithms are known to solve such a system of equations. Security parameters and their secure values are defined. Security analysis against chosen plaintext attack (CPA) and chosen ciphertext attack (CCA) is presented. Measures taken to prevent DLA attack increase the security of this protocol with respect to the previously declated protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
Open AccessArticle An Improved Protocol for the Password Authenticated Association of IEEE 802.15.6 Standard That Alleviates Computational Burden on the Node
Symmetry 2016, 8(11), 131; doi:10.3390/sym8110131
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The IEEE Std 802.15.6 is an international standard for wireless body area networks (WBANs). It contains many aspects of communications, and also provides security services, since some communications in WBANs can carry sensitive information. In this standard, the password authenticated association is a
[...] Read more.
The IEEE Std 802.15.6 is an international standard for wireless body area networks (WBANs). It contains many aspects of communications, and also provides security services, since some communications in WBANs can carry sensitive information. In this standard, the password authenticated association is a protocol for two participants to identify each other and establish a new master key based on a pre-shared short password. However, recent research shows that this protocol is vulnerable to several attacks. In this paper, we propose an improved protocol which can resist all of these attacks. Moreover, the improved protocol alleviates computational burden on one side of the two participants, the node, which is usually less powerful compared with the other side, the hub. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Scenario-Based Digital Forensics Challenges in Cloud Computing
Symmetry 2016, 8(10), 107; doi:10.3390/sym8100107
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who) from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in
[...] Read more.
The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who) from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in a cloud environment forensic investigation, this is not always possible. Additionally, the unique characteristics of cloud computing create new technical, legal and architectural challenges when conducting a forensic investigation. We propose a hypothetical scenario to uncover and explain the challenges forensic practitioners face during cloud investigations. Additionally, we also provide solutions to address the challenges. Our hypothetical case scenario has shown that, in the long run, better live forensic tools, development of new methods tailored for cloud investigations and new procedures and standards are indeed needed. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that forensic investigations biggest challenge is not technical but legal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Security Scheme Based on Parameter Hiding Technic for Mobile Communication in a Secure Cyber World
Symmetry 2016, 8(10), 106; doi:10.3390/sym8100106
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
PDF Full-text (1475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) support a better data transmission service than 3G dose and are globally commercialized technologies in a cyber world that is essential for constructing a future mobile environment, since network traffics have exponentially increased as
[...] Read more.
Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) support a better data transmission service than 3G dose and are globally commercialized technologies in a cyber world that is essential for constructing a future mobile environment, since network traffics have exponentially increased as people have started to use more than just one mobile device. However, when User Equipment (UE) is executing initial attach processes to access LTE networks, there is a vulnerability in which identification parameters like International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI) are transmitted as plain texts. It can threat various services that are commercialized therewith in a cyber world. Therefore, a security scheme is proposed in this paper where identification parameters can be securely transmitted and hidden in four cases where initial attach occurs between UE and Mobility Management Entity (MME). The proposed security scheme not only supports encrypted transmission of identification parameters but also mutual authentication between Evolved Node B (eNB) and MME to make a secure cyber world. Additionally, performance analysis results using an OPNET simulator showed the satisfaction of the average delay rate that is specified in LTE standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Smartphone User Identity Verification Using Gait Characteristics
Symmetry 2016, 8(10), 100; doi:10.3390/sym8100100
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 4 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
PDF Full-text (3946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smartphone-based biometrics offers a wide range of possible solutions, which could be used to authenticate users and thus to provide an extra level of security and theft prevention. We propose a method for positive identification of smartphone user’s identity using user’s gait characteristics
[...] Read more.
Smartphone-based biometrics offers a wide range of possible solutions, which could be used to authenticate users and thus to provide an extra level of security and theft prevention. We propose a method for positive identification of smartphone user’s identity using user’s gait characteristics captured by embedded smartphone sensors (gyroscopes, accelerometers). The method is based on the application of the Random Projections method for feature dimensionality reduction to just two dimensions. Then, a probability distribution function (PDF) of derived features is calculated, which is compared against known user PDF. The Jaccard distance is used to evaluate distance between two distributions, and the decision is taken based on thresholding. The results for subject recognition are at an acceptable level: we have achieved a grand mean Equal Error Rate (ERR) for subject identification of 5.7% (using the USC-HAD dataset). Our findings represent a step towards improving the performance of gait-based user identity verification technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Image Region Duplication Forgery Detection Based on Angular Radial Partitioning and Harris Key-Points
Symmetry 2016, 8(7), 62; doi:10.3390/sym8070062
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 3 July 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
PDF Full-text (6107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Region duplication forgery where a part of the image itself is copied and pasted onto a different part of the same image grid is becoming more popular in image manipulation. The forgers often apply geometric transformations such as rotation and scaling operations to
[...] Read more.
Region duplication forgery where a part of the image itself is copied and pasted onto a different part of the same image grid is becoming more popular in image manipulation. The forgers often apply geometric transformations such as rotation and scaling operations to make the forgery imperceptible. In this study, an image region duplication forgery detection algorithm is proposed based on the angular radial partitioning and Harris key-points. Two standard databases have been used: image data manipulation and MICC-F220 (Media Integration and Communication Center– of the University of Florence) for experimentation. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed technique can detect rotated regions in multiples of 30 degrees and can detect region duplication with different scaling factors from 0.8, to 1.2. More experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of detecting region duplication that has undergone other changes, such as Gaussian noise, and JPEG compression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle A Methodology and Tool for Investigation of Artifacts Left by the BitTorrent Client
Symmetry 2016, 8(6), 40; doi:10.3390/sym8060040
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
PDF Full-text (4790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The BitTorrent client application is a popular utility for sharing large files over the Internet. Sometimes, this powerful utility is used to commit cybercrimes, like sharing of illegal material or illegal sharing of legal material. In order to help forensics investigators to fight
[...] Read more.
The BitTorrent client application is a popular utility for sharing large files over the Internet. Sometimes, this powerful utility is used to commit cybercrimes, like sharing of illegal material or illegal sharing of legal material. In order to help forensics investigators to fight against these cybercrimes, we carried out an investigation of the artifacts left by the BitTorrent client. We proposed a methodology to locate the artifacts that indicate the BitTorrent client activity performed. Additionally, we designed and implemented a tool that searches for the evidence left by the BitTorrent client application in a local computer running Windows. The tool looks for the four files holding the evidence. The files are as follows: *.torrent, dht.dat, resume.dat, and settings.dat. The tool decodes the files, extracts important information for the forensic investigator and converts it into XML format. The results are combined into a single result file. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Survey of Public Key Infrastructure-Based Security for Mobile Communication Systems
Symmetry 2016, 8(9), 85; doi:10.3390/sym8090085
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
PDF Full-text (1047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile communication security techniques are employed to guard the communication between the network entities. Mobile communication cellular systems have become one of the most important communication systems in recent times and are used by millions of people around the world. Since the 1990s,
[...] Read more.
Mobile communication security techniques are employed to guard the communication between the network entities. Mobile communication cellular systems have become one of the most important communication systems in recent times and are used by millions of people around the world. Since the 1990s, considerable efforts have been taken to improve both the communication and security features of the mobile communications systems. However, these improvements divide the mobile communications field into different generations according to the communication and security techniques such as A3, A5 and A8 algorithms for 2G-GSM cellular system, 3G-authentication and key agreement (AKA), evolved packet system-authentication and key agreement (EPS-AKA), and long term evolution-authentication and key agreement (LTE-AKA) algorithms for 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) systems. Furthermore, these generations have many vulnerabilities, and huge security work is involved to solve such problems. Some of them are in the field of the public key cryptography (PKC) which requires a high computational cost and more network flexibility to be achieved. As such, the public key infrastructure (PKI) is more compatible with the modern generations due to the superior communications features. This paper surveys the latest proposed works on the security of GSM, CDMA, and LTE cellular systems using PKI. Firstly, we present the security issues for each generation of mobile communication systems, then we study and analyze the latest proposed schemes and give some comparisons. Finally, we introduce some new directions for the future scope. This paper classifies the mobile communication security schemes according to the techniques used for each cellular system and covers some of the PKI-based security techniques such as authentication, key agreement, and privacy preserving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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