Special Issue "Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Olivier Sorg

Dermatotoxicology Unit, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0041 22 3795032
Interests: toxicology; dermatology; phytopharmacology; photobiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are planar polycyclic organic compounds with various numbers of halogen atoms, mostly chlorine. Among them, we find the so-called dioxin-like molecules, i.e., polychlorinated (i) dibenzodioxins (PCDD), (ii) dibenzofurans (PCDF) and (iii) biphenyls (PCB). There are persistent organic pollutants, and will be present in the environment for many years. Their toxicity is believed to be mediated by the binding to the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); however, little is known about the biology of these compounds. For instance, the most potent dioxin-like molecule, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), is considered by the International Agency for Research in Cancer as a human carcinogen, although this has not been confirmed by a 40-year follow up of the population of Seveso who was exposed to TCDD following an explosion of a chemical reactor in the ICMESA factory in July 1976. On the other hand, TCDD and other chlorinated compounds induce a severe cutaneous syndrome, known as chloracne, in which sebaceous glands are replaced by hamartoma. These compounds are toxic for the gut, as well as the liver and the pancreas. The toxicity of these compounds cannot be explained only by their activation of AhR, because various structurally-unrelated compounds found in plants and vegetables may activate AhR without inducing toxicity. These data confirm the need for more fundamental research on these compounds to better understand their mechanism of toxicity.

Dr. Olivier Sorg
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PHAH)
  • Dioxin
  • TCDD
  • AhR
  • Chloracne
  • Toxicity
  • Cell Signaling
  • Mechanism

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Transcriptomic Analysis of Gonadal Adipose Tissue in Male Mice Exposed Perinatally to 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-47)
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
For the majority of lipophilic compounds, adipose tissue is traditionally considered as a storage depot and only rarely as a target organ. Meanwhile, abnormalities in adipose tissue physiology induced by chemical exposure may contribute to the current epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases.
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For the majority of lipophilic compounds, adipose tissue is traditionally considered as a storage depot and only rarely as a target organ. Meanwhile, abnormalities in adipose tissue physiology induced by chemical exposure may contribute to the current epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of lipophilic flame retardants found in the majority of human samples in North America. Their ability to alter the physiology of adipose tissue is unknown. We exposed pregnant mice to 0.2 mg/kg body weight/day of BDE-47 perinatally. Transcriptomic changes in gonadal adipose tissue were analyzed in male offspring using the RNA-seq approach with subsequent bioinformatic analysis. The expression of genes of coagulation and complement cascade, de novo lipogenesis, and xenobiotic metabolism was altered in response to BDE-47 exposure. The affected molecular network included the following hubs: PPARα, HNF1A, and HNF4. These findings suggest that adipose tissue should be considered a target tissue for BDE-47, in addition to its role as a storage depot. This study also builds a background for a targeted search of sensitive phenotypic endpoints of BDE-47 exposure, including lipid profile parameters and coagulation factors in circulation. Additional studies are needed to investigate the role of PBDEs as an obesogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Species and Sex Differences in the Morphogenic Response of Primary Rodent Neurons to 3,3′-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11)
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
PCB 11 is an emerging global pollutant that we recently showed promotes axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neuronal cell cultures. Here, we address the influence of sex and species on neuronal responses to PCB 11. Neuronal morphology was quantified in sex-specific
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PCB 11 is an emerging global pollutant that we recently showed promotes axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neuronal cell cultures. Here, we address the influence of sex and species on neuronal responses to PCB 11. Neuronal morphology was quantified in sex-specific primary hippocampal and cortical neuron-glia co-cultures derived from neonatal C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats exposed for 48 h to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM. Total axonal length was quantified in tau-1 immunoreactive neurons at day in vitro (DIV) 2; dendritic arborization was assessed by Sholl analysis at DIV 9 in neurons transfected with MAP2B-FusRed. In mouse cultures, PCB 11 enhanced dendritic arborization in female, but not male, hippocampal neurons and male, but not female, cortical neurons. In rat cultures, PCB 11 promoted dendritic arborization in male and female hippocampal and cortical neurons. PCB 11 also increased axonal growth in mouse and rat neurons of both sexes and neuronal cell types. These data demonstrate that PCB 11 exerts sex-specific effects on neuronal morphogenesis that vary depending on species, neurite type, and neuronal cell type. These findings have significant implications for risk assessment of this emerging developmental neurotoxicant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the “Land of Fires” Area of Southern Italy
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known “Land of Fires” area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more
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The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known “Land of Fires” area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011–2.26 ng g−1 for the six “indicator” non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009–0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g−1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a “sentinel” of the presence of these contaminants in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Persistent Threats by Persistent Pollutants: Chemical Nature, Concerns and Future Policy Regarding PCBs—What Are We Heading For?
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites around the world affect human health for many years, showing long latency periods of health effects. The impact of the different PCB congeners on human health should not be underestimated, as they are ubiquitous, stable molecules and reactive in
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Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites around the world affect human health for many years, showing long latency periods of health effects. The impact of the different PCB congeners on human health should not be underestimated, as they are ubiquitous, stable molecules and reactive in biological tissues, leading to neurological, endocrine, genetic, and systemic adverse effects in the human body. Moreover, bioaccumulation of these compounds in fatty tissues of animals (e.g., fish and mammals) and in soils/sediments, results in chronic exposure to these substances. Efficient destruction methods are important to decontaminate polluted sites worldwide. This paper provides an in-depth overview of (i) the history and accidents with PCBs in the 20th century, (ii) the mechanisms that are responsible for the hazardous effects of PCBs, and (iii) the current policy regarding PCB control and decontamination. Contemporary impacts on human health of historical incidents are discussed next to an up to date overview of the health effects caused by PCBs and their mechanisms. Methods to decontaminate sites are reviewed. Steps which lead to a policy of banning the production and distribution of PCBs are overviewed in a context of preventing future accidents and harm to the environment and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
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