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Special Issue "Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Marc Maresca

Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, iSm2 UMR 7313, Marseille 13397, France
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +33-491-284-440
Interests: gut physiology; intestinal epithelial cells; intestinal toxicology ; enterotoxins; bacterial toxins; virotoxins; mycotoxins; trichothecenes; deoxynivalenol; nutrient absorption

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From many years, the food-associated trichothecene mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) has attracted the attention of scientists (http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/4/784). This is due for part to its high prevalence in animal/human food and feed products as demonstrated through the successful use of urinary biomarkers confirming the exposure of humans to substantial doses of this toxin. DON is also one of the most hazardous mycotoxins, this toxin affecting the functions of nervous, endocrine, immune and intestinal cells. In addition to its toxicity to animal cells (that could be considered as a collateral damage), DON is also known to affect plant cells functions, such effects certainly playing a role during the colonization of wheat and cereals by DON-producing fungi such as Fusarium species. The toxicity of DON seems to depend on the presence an epoxide function allowing its binding to ribosomes, causing the so-called “ribotoxic stress” effect, the activation of specific kinases (including PKR and MAP kinases) and eventually leading to the inhibition of the protein synthesis and to cell death. Due to its ability to activate PKR and MAP kinases, DON also acts as a proinflammatory signal at low doses whereas higher doses are immunosuppressive due to cellular toxicity. In animals, in addition to affect the systemic and the intestinal immunity, DON also impacts the functions of the brain and endocrine cells, causing anorexia and vomiting. Food not only contains native toxin, but also large amounts of plant and fungal derivatives of DON (including the fungal metabolites 3 and 15 acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON) and the plant derivative 3-O-glucoside-DON (D3G)) and possibly, although no study has yet confirmed it, of animal derivatives (i.e., 3 and 15-glucuronide DON) potentially present in meat and animal-derived products. New DON derivatives were furthermore recently found in plants and food products, including DON-oligoglycosides, DON-glutathione, DON-S-Cysteine, DON-S-Cysteinyl-glycine, DON-sulfonate. Although previous research has brought light on the mechanisms of action of DON, important questions remain. For example, little is known on the ability of the fungi to be transmitted from the soil to the cereals and on the levels of DON and DON metabolites in different plant tissues during natural and experimental contamination. Data on the effects of DON and its metabolites on plant cells are also scarce. Similarly, how DON enters the cells (animal or plant cells) and how it binds / acts on ribosomes is not perfectly characterized. Finally, if ribosomes are the only target of DON, how the toxin could activate different kinases depending of the dose of toxin remains a mystery. We hope some of these questions will be answered in this special issue focusing on one of the most studied and relevant food-associated mycotoxin.

Dr. Marc Maresca
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • deoxynivalenol
  • trichothecene
  • cell entry
  • cell effect
  • DON derivative

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy
Toxins 2014, 6(11), 3129-3143; doi:10.3390/toxins6113129
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 25 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50–16,000 µg/kg
[...] Read more.
Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50–16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large root mean square error of prediction value (1,977 µg/kg) as compared to the EU maximum limit for DON in unprocessed durum wheat (i.e., 1,750 µg/kg), thus making the PLS approach unsuitable for quantitative prediction of DON in durum wheat. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to differentiate wheat samples based on their DON content. A first approach used LDA to group wheat samples into three classes: A (DON ≤ 1,000 µg/kg), B (1,000 < DON ≤ 2,500 µg/kg), and C (DON > 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Deoxynivalenol in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Immature Gilts under per os Toxin Application
Toxins 2014, 6(3), 973-987; doi:10.3390/toxins6030973
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol is also known as vomitoxin due to its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol is also known as vomitoxin due to its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Because of concerns related to deoxynivalenol, the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 5 µg/g for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 µg/g for grain products for cattle feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on the presence of this mycotoxin in selected tissues of the alimentary canal of gilts. The study was performed on 39 animals divided into two groups (control, C; n = 21 and experimental, E; n = 18), of 20 kg body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Gilts received the toxin in doses of 12 µg/kg b.w./day (experimental group) or placebo (control group) over a period of 42 days. Three animals from two experimental groups were sacrificed on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, excluding day 1 when only three control group animals were scarified. Tissues samples were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with the application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The results show that deoxynivalenol doses used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in gastrointestinal tissues. The highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol reported in small intestine samples ranged from 7.2 (in the duodenum) to 18.6 ng/g (in the ileum) and in large intestine samples from 1.8 (in transverse the colon) to 23.0 ng/g (in the caecum). In liver tissues, the deoxynivalenol contents ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 ng/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid
Toxins 2014, 6(3), 830-849; doi:10.3390/toxins6030830
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula
[...] Read more.
Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Open AccessArticle Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 756-778; doi:10.3390/toxins6020756
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1103 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 679-692; doi:10.3390/toxins6020679
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can cause cell death in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but can also reduce the level of cell death caused by heat shock in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell cultures. We show that 10 μg mL−1
[...] Read more.
The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can cause cell death in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but can also reduce the level of cell death caused by heat shock in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell cultures. We show that 10 μg mL−1 DON does not cause cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures, and its ability to retard heat-induced cell death is light dependent. Under dark conditions, it actually promoted heat-induced cell death. Wheat cultivars differ in their ability to resist this toxin, and we investigated if the ability of wheat to mount defense responses was light dependent. We found no evidence that light affected the transcription of defense genes in DON-treated roots of seedlings of two wheat cultivars, namely cultivar CM82036 that is resistant to DON-induced bleaching of spikelet tissue and cultivar Remus that is not. However, DON treatment of roots led to genotype-dependent and light-enhanced defense transcript accumulation in coleoptiles. Wheat transcripts encoding a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene (previously associated with Fusarium resistance), non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes-1 (NPR1) and a class III plant peroxidase (POX) were DON-upregulated in coleoptiles of wheat cultivar CM82036 but not of cultivar Remus, and DON-upregulation of these transcripts in cultivar CM82036 was light enhanced. Light and genotype-dependent differences in the DON/DON derivative content of coleoptiles were also observed. These results, coupled with previous findings regarding the effect of DON on plants, show that light either directly or indirectly influences the plant defense responses to DON. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 575-591; doi:10.3390/toxins6020575
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study comprises analyses of contents of mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the level of oxidative stress in ears of a susceptible wheat cultivar Hanseat and cv. Arina, resistant to a pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Starting from 48
[...] Read more.
This study comprises analyses of contents of mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the level of oxidative stress in ears of a susceptible wheat cultivar Hanseat and cv. Arina, resistant to a pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Starting from 48 h after inoculation, a marked increase was observed in the contents of these mycotoxins in ears of wheat; however, the greatest accumulation was recorded in the late period after inoculation, i.e., during development of disease. Up to 120 h after inoculation, in ears of both wheat cultivars, the level of deoxynivalenol was higher than that of zearalenone. The susceptible cultivar was characterized by a much greater accumulation of deoxynivalenol than the resistant cultivar. At the same time, in this cultivar, in the time from 0 to 72 h after inoculation, a marked post-infection increase was observed in the generation of the superoxide radical (O2•−). Additionally, its level, at all the time points after inoculation, was higher than in the control. In wheat cv. Arina, a markedly higher level of O2•− generation in relation to the control was found up to two hours after inoculation and, next, at a later time after inoculation. In turn, the level of semiquinone radicals detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) increased at later culture times, both in cv. Hanseat and Arina; however, in infested ears of wheat, it was generally lower than in the control. Analysis of disease symptoms revealed the presence of more extensive lesions in ears of a susceptible wheat cv. Hanseat than resistant cv. Arina. Additionally, ergosterol level as a fungal growth indicator was higher in ears of susceptible wheat than in the resistant cultivar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Multi-Mycotoxin Exposure in Southern Italy by Urinary Multi-Biomarker Determination
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 523-538; doi:10.3390/toxins6020523
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human exposure assessment to deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be performed by measuring their urinary biomarkers. Suitable biomarkers of exposure for these mycotoxins are DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), FB1
[...] Read more.
Human exposure assessment to deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be performed by measuring their urinary biomarkers. Suitable biomarkers of exposure for these mycotoxins are DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), FB1, ZEA + α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) + β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and OTA, respectively. An UPLC-MS/MS multi-biomarker method was used to detect and measure incidence and levels of these biomarkers in urine samples of 52 volunteers resident in Apulia region in Southern Italy. The presence of ZEA + ZOLs, OTA, DON, FB1 and AFM1 were detected in 100%, 100%, 96%, 56% and 6%, of samples, respectively. All samples contained biomarkers of two or more mycotoxins. The mean concentrations of biomarkers ranged from 0.055 ng/mL (FB1) to 11.89 ng/mL (DON). Urinary biomarker concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to multiple mycotoxin. For OTA and DON, 94% and 40% of volunteers, respectively exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these mycotoxins. The estimated human exposure to FB1 and ZEA was largely below the TDI for these mycotoxins for all volunteers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 394-401; doi:10.3390/toxins6010394
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Stereoselective Luche Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Three of Its Acetylated Derivatives at C8
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 325-336; doi:10.3390/toxins6010325
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 29 December 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 10 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a well known and common contaminant in food and feed. Acetylated derivatives and other biosynthetic precursors can occur together with the main toxin. A key biosynthetic step towards DON involves an oxidation of the 8-OH group of
[...] Read more.
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a well known and common contaminant in food and feed. Acetylated derivatives and other biosynthetic precursors can occur together with the main toxin. A key biosynthetic step towards DON involves an oxidation of the 8-OH group of 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin. Since analytical standards for the intermediates are not available and these intermediates are therefore rarely studied, we aimed for a synthetic method to invert this reaction, making a series of calonectrin-derived precursors accessible. We did this by developing an efficient protocol for stereoselective Luche reduction at C8. This method was used to access 3,7,8,15-tetrahydroxyscirpene, 3-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, 15-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin and 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, which were characterized using several NMR techniques. Beside the development of a method which could basically be used for all type B trichothecenes, we opened a synthetic route towards different acetylated calonectrins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Open AccessArticle Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 81-95; doi:10.3390/toxins6010081
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2656-2670; doi:10.3390/toxins5122656
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of “masked mycotoxin”, named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification of the plant. In this study, DON and D3G were
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of “masked mycotoxin”, named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification of the plant. In this study, DON and D3G were measured using gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in wheat samples collected during 2011 and 2012 in the USA. Results indicate that the growing region had a significant effect on the DON and D3G (p < 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between both methods (GC and LC-MS) used for determination of DON content. DON showed a significant and positive correlation with D3G during 2011. Overall, DON production had an effect on D3G content and kernel damage, and was dependent on environmental conditions during Fusarium infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2522-2532; doi:10.3390/toxins5122522
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Open AccessArticle Deoxynivanelol and Fumonisin, Alone or in Combination, Induce Changes on Intestinal Junction Complexes and in E-Cadherin Expression
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2341-2352; doi:10.3390/toxins5122341
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 10 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusariotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) cause deleterious effects on the intestine of pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these mycotoxins, alone and in combination, on jejunal explants from piglets, using histological, immunohistochemical and
[...] Read more.
Fusariotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) cause deleterious effects on the intestine of pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these mycotoxins, alone and in combination, on jejunal explants from piglets, using histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural assays. Five 24-day old pigs were used for sampling the explants. Forty-eight explants were sampled from each animal. Explants were incubated for 4 hours in culture medium and medium containing FB1 (100 µM), DON (10 µM) and both mycotoxins (100 µM FB1 plus 10 µM DON). Exposure to all treatments induced a significant decrease in the normal intestinal morphology and in the number of goblet cells, which were more severe in explants exposed to DON and both mycotoxins. A significant reduction in villus height occurred in groups treated with DON and with co-contamination. Expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced in explants exposed to FB1 (40%), DON (93%) and FB1 plus DON (100%). The ultrastructural assay showed increased intercellular spaces and no junction complexes on enterocytes exposed to mycotoxins. The present data indicate that FB1 and DON induce changes in cell junction complexes that could contribute to increase paracellular permeability. The ex vivo model was adequate for assessing intestinal toxicity induced by exposure of isolated or associated concentrations of 100 µM of FB1 and 10 µM of DON. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2293-2309; doi:10.3390/toxins5122293
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta.
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Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg) of deoxynivalenol (DON) was  in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg) and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg), far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg) set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle The Expression of Type-1 and Type-2 Nitric Oxide Synthase in Selected Tissues of the Gastrointestinal Tract during Mixed Mycotoxicosis
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2281-2292; doi:10.3390/toxins5112281
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that intoxication with low doses of mycotoxins leads to changes in the mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 genes in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and the
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The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that intoxication with low doses of mycotoxins leads to changes in the mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 genes in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. The experiment involved four groups of immature gilts (with body weight of up to 25 kg) which were orally administered zearalenone in a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 18), deoxynivalenol at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 18), zearalenone and deoxynivalenol (group M, n = 18) or placebo (group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. The lowest mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 genes were noted in the sixth week of the study, in particular in group M. Our results suggest that the presence of low mycotoxin doses in feed slows down the mRNA expression of both nitric oxide synthase isomers, which probably lowers the concentrations of nitric oxide, a common precursor of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessArticle Correlation of ATP Citrate Lyase and Acetyl CoA Levels with Trichothecene Production in Fusarium graminearum
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2258-2269; doi:10.3390/toxins5112258
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30
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The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM) was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM) together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of sucrose and that acetyl CoA produced by the increased ALC level may be used for trichothecene production in the fungus. These findings also suggest that sucrose is important for the action of cobalt chloride in activating trichothecene production and that precocene II may affect a step down-stream of the target of cobalt chloride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)

Review

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Open AccessReview Effect of Deoxynivalenol and Other Type B Trichothecenes on the Intestine: A Review
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1615-1643; doi:10.3390/toxins6051615
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world’s crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered
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The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world’s crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered as a ubiquitous problem worldwide. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants. An increasing number of studies suggest that intestinal epithelial cells are targets for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other Type B trichothecenes (TCTB). In humans, various adverse digestive symptoms are observed on acute exposure, and in animals, these toxins induce pathological lesions, including necrosis of the intestinal epithelium. They affect the integrity of the intestinal epithelium through alterations in cell morphology and differentiation and in the barrier function. Moreover, DON and TCTB modulate the activity of intestinal epithelium in its role in immune responsiveness. TCTB affect cytokine production by intestinal or immune cells and are supposed to interfere with the cross-talk between epithelial cells and other intestinal immune cells. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the effects of DON and other TCTB on the intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessReview The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 430-452; doi:10.3390/toxins6020430
Received: 21 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious
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Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessReview Deoxynivalenol: A Major Player in the Multifaceted Response of Fusarium to Its Environment
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 1-19; doi:10.3390/toxins6010001
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 16 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by several Fusarium spp., acts as a virulence factor and is essential for symptom development after initial wheat infection. Accumulating evidence shows that the production of this secondary metabolite can be triggered by diverse environmental and cellular signals,
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The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by several Fusarium spp., acts as a virulence factor and is essential for symptom development after initial wheat infection. Accumulating evidence shows that the production of this secondary metabolite can be triggered by diverse environmental and cellular signals, implying that it might have additional roles during the life cycle of the fungus. Here, we review data that position DON in the saprophytic fitness of Fusarium, in defense and in the primary C and N metabolism of the plant and the fungus. We combine the available information in speculative models on the role of DON throughout the interaction with the host, providing working hypotheses that await experimental validation. We also highlight the possible impact of control measures in the field on DON production and summarize the influence of abiotic factors during processing and storage of food and feed matrices. Altogether, we can conclude that DON is a very important compound for Fusarium to cope with a changing environment and to assure its growth, survival, and production of toxic metabolites in diverse situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessReview From the Gut to the Brain: Journey and Pathophysiological Effects of the Food-Associated Trichothecene Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol
Toxins 2013, 5(4), 784-820; doi:10.3390/toxins5040784
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013
Cited by 83 | PDF Full-text (2006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In
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Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In addition to native toxins, food also contains a large amount of plant and fungal derivatives of DON, including acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON), glucoside-DON (D3G), and potentially animal derivatives such as glucuronide metabolites (D3 and D15GA) present in animal tissues (e.g., blood, muscle and liver tissue). The present review summarizes previous and very recent experimental data collected in vivo and in vitro regarding the transport, detoxification/metabolism and physiological impact of DON and its derivatives on intestinal, immune, endocrine and neurologic functions during their journey from the gut to the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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