Special Issue "Detoxification of Mycotoxins"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2014)
Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
National Agronomical High School of Toulouse (ENSAT), Unit of Toxicology & Food safety, Midival, 8 avenue Pierre Latecoere, Sainte-Foy d'Aigrefeuille F- 31570, France
Interests: mycotoxin; ochratoxin; fumonisin; zearalenone; biomarker; risk evaluation; environmental toxicology; polycyclic aromatic compounds; genotoxicity; DNA adduct; balkan endemic nephropathy; kidney cancer; biotransformation
Contamination of food and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic molds is a serious problem. Fungi are naturally present and can contaminate food crop under favorable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH, nutrient availability and oxygen. Besides the loss of crop and foodstuffs, the production of mycotoxins represents a big problem, since it has been associated with a wide range of negative effects for human health including carcinogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic effects. In animals, mycotoxins decrease performance, cause feed refusal, poor feed conversion, diminished body weight gain, and reproductive disorders. In particular, species belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium have been associated with the production of aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone. Exposure of consumers to mycotoxins is mainly via plant foods. However, an additional potential exposure may be via foods of animal origin such as milk, cheese and meat as animals consuming mycotoxin-contaminated feeds can produce foods that contain toxic residues and biotransformation products.
Although the prevention of mycotoxins contamination in the field is the main goal of agriculture and food industries, methods during food processing need to be developed to reduce fungal growth.
Post-harvest strategies aim at lowering fungal contamination and, consequently, the mycotoxin content of agricultural products during storage, handling, processing, and transport. Such strategies include the improvement of drying and storage conditions, the use of chemical and natural agents, and irradiation. Unfortunately, contamination cannot be completely avoided. Therefore, there is an increased focus on effective methods of detoxification for mycotoxins present in food, and on the inhibition of mycotoxin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also possible to prevent the toxic effects once mycotoxin is ingested using feed additives such as antioxidants, sulfur containing amino acids, vitamins and trace elements. A novel strategy to control mycotoxicoses is the application of microorganisms (lactic bacteria; yeasts…) capable to biotransform some mycotoxins into less toxic metabolites. All papers dealing with these objectives are welcome.
Prof. Dr. Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
Manuscript Submission Information
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- lactic bacteria