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Topical Collection "Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains"

A topical collection in Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This collection belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Paola Battilani

Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 0523 599254
Fax: +39 0523 599256
Interests: mycotoxin producing fungi; fungal ecology; epidemiology; modelling; Decision Support System; plant pathogen interaction; cropping system; cereals; grapes; dry cured meat

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health risks related to mycotoxins have increasingly needed to be considered in recent years; research activity moved from monitoring mycotoxins and associated fungi, to using a system approach. The patho-system has, for example, been extensively studied in order to take advantage of powerful tools available for understanding host-fungi interaction and resulting metabolites. Increasing knowledge frequently leads to the discovery of where gaps need to be filled and the endless discovery of compounds and affected matrices show that new research is currently needed. Nevertheless, several steps have been taken to explain the occurrence of mycotoxins and this is crucial for mitigation actions and for minimizing human and animal exposure.

Prof. Dr. Paola Battilani
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • Field crops
  • animal products
  • host-fungi interaction
  • mycotoxin dynamics
  • mitigation

Published Papers (40 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessCorrection Correction: S. Vogelgsang et al. Fusarium Mycotoxins in Swiss Wheat: A Survey of Growers’ Samples between 2007 and 2014 Shows Strong Year and Minor Geographic Effects. Toxins 2017, 9, 246
Toxins 2017, 9(11), 377; doi:10.3390/toxins9110377
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to correct Figures 3–5 in this paper [1]. In all three figures, the y axis stated as a unit “milligram/kg” (mg/kg) instead of “microgram/kg” (µg/kg). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring the Temporal Expression of Genes Involved in Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus carbonarius under the Influence of Temperature and Water Activity
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 296; doi:10.3390/toxins9100296
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, namely temperature and water activity, on genes involved in the regulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) production over time. For this purpose, the previously characterized toxigenic Aspergillus carbonarius Ac29 isolate from
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, namely temperature and water activity, on genes involved in the regulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) production over time. For this purpose, the previously characterized toxigenic Aspergillus carbonarius Ac29 isolate from Greek vineyards and the A. carbonarius ITEM 5010 reference strain were subjected to combined temperature and water activity (aw) treatments to study OTA production and relative gene expression. The fungal isolates were grown on a synthetic grape juice liquid medium (SGM) under different temperature (20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C) and aw (0.94 and 0.98) regimes. The expression of the AcOTApks, AcOTAnrps, and laeA OTA related genes was investigated using real time PCR. Gene expression was monitored at the same time points, along with fungal biomass and OTA accumulation at three, six and nine days of incubation. In gene expression analysis, stimulation of the biosynthetic genes was observed a few days before any toxin could be detected. This fact may underline a possible early indicator of potential toxin contamination of grapes. However, the transcript levels varied with respect to the different combinations of ecophysiological conditions and time, highlighting a complex regulation of OTA related gene expression of A. carbonarius in the specific medium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Decrease of Incidence Cases of Fumonisins in South Korean Feedstuff between 2011 and 2016
Toxins 2017, 9(9), 286; doi:10.3390/toxins9090286
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Several plant pathogen Fusarium species produce fumonisins (FUMs); which can end up in food and feed and; when ingested; can exhibit harmful effects on humans and livestock. Mycotoxin intoxication by fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2)
[...] Read more.
Several plant pathogen Fusarium species produce fumonisins (FUMs); which can end up in food and feed and; when ingested; can exhibit harmful effects on humans and livestock. Mycotoxin intoxication by fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) can cause porcine pulmonary edema; leukoencephalomalacia in equines; esophageal cancer and birth defects by natural contamination. Herein; the occurrence of FB1 and FB2 in feedstuff (compound feed and feed ingredients) was investigated between 2011 and 2016 in South Korea. A total of 535 animal feed samples (425 compound feed samples and 110 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled four times between 2011 and 2016 (2011; 2012; 2014 and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea. The limit of detection (LOD) for FB1 and FB2 was 20 μg/kg and 25 μg/kg; respectively; and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 30 μg/kg and 35 μg/kg; respectively. The recovery range (%) was between 86.4% and 108.8%; and the relative standard deviation (RSD) (%) was 4.7–12.1%. Seven (swine feed samples) out of the 425 feed samples exceeded the European Union (EU) and South Korea commission regulations over the six-year test period; and no feed ingredients exceeded the guidelines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fusarium Mycotoxins in Swiss Wheat: A Survey of Growers’ Samples between 2007 and 2014 Shows Strong Year and Minor Geographic Effects
Toxins 2017, 9(8), 246; doi:10.3390/toxins9080246
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To assess the occurrence of Fusarium toxins in wheat in Switzerland, an eight-year survey was conducted by analysing a total of 686 harvest samples from growers using LC-MS/MS. Between 2007 and 2010, 527 samples were obtained from 17 cantons. Between 2011 and 2014,
[...] Read more.
To assess the occurrence of Fusarium toxins in wheat in Switzerland, an eight-year survey was conducted by analysing a total of 686 harvest samples from growers using LC-MS/MS. Between 2007 and 2010, 527 samples were obtained from 17 cantons. Between 2011 and 2014, 159 samples were collected from the canton Berne. The most frequent toxins detected were deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and nivalenol (NIV). The overall mean DON content in all samples was 607 µg/kg, and 11% exceeded the European limit for unprocessed cereals for foodstuffs (1250 µg/kg). For ZEA (mean 39 µg/kg), 7% exceeded the respective limit (100 µg/kg), and the mean content of NIV (no limit established) was 15 µg/kg. Between the years, the ratio of mycotoxin-contaminated samples ranged between 52% and 98% for DON, 9% and 43% for ZEA and 0% and 49% for NIV. The yearly mean contents varied substantially between 68 and 1310 µg/kg for DON, 5 and 56 µg/kg for ZEA and 6 and 29 µg/kg for NIV. The geographic origin showed a significant effect on DON and ZEA contamination, but was inconsistent between the years. This study has shown that the majority of Swiss-produced wheat is, in terms of Fusarium toxins, fit for human consumption and feed purposes. Nevertheless, depending on the year, high toxin contents can be expected, an issue that growers, cereal collection centres and the food industry have to deal with to ensure food and feed safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Masked Metabolite of Deoxynivalenol and Fusarium Resistance in CIMMYT Wheat Germplasm
Toxins 2017, 9(8), 238; doi:10.3390/toxins9080238
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes significant grain loss and contamination of grains with harmful mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Fusarium resistance and DON accumulation have been extensively investigated in various cultivars; however, the level of DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G) has not been as carefully
[...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes significant grain loss and contamination of grains with harmful mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Fusarium resistance and DON accumulation have been extensively investigated in various cultivars; however, the level of DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G) has not been as carefully studied. In this study, we measured accumulated DON and D3G levels in CIMMYT wheat elite germplasm using an analytical method validated in-house. Co-occurring nivalenol (NIV) and ergostrerol (ERG) were also analyzed. LC-MS/MS and LC-UV analyses were applied to the 50 CIMMYT elite wheat lines. D3G showed rather high correlation with DON (r = 0.82), while FHB symptoms showed slight correlation with DON and D3G (r = 0.36 and 0.32, respectively). D3G/DON ratio varied widely from 8.1 to 37.7%, and the ratio was not related with FHB resistance in this dataset. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Fumonisin B2 Production by Aspergillus niger Intented Used in Food Industry in China
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 217; doi:10.3390/toxins9070217
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
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Abstract
There are a total of 30 strains including 27 strains of Aspergillus niger intended used in Chinese food industry, two strains used as control and one strain isolated from corn for fumonisin (FB) production on 3 media. It was found that FB2
[...] Read more.
There are a total of 30 strains including 27 strains of Aspergillus niger intended used in Chinese food industry, two strains used as control and one strain isolated from corn for fumonisin (FB) production on 3 media. It was found that FB2 production by A. niger was function-dependent and highly related to culture media, as well as incubation time. All strains studied were unable to produce FB1 and FB3. Almost all strains were found to produce FB2 on corn, rice and wheat bran. Based on their intended use in the food industry, the higher level of FB2 producers were strains used for saccharifying enzyme (n = 13) production, followed by organic acid (n = 6), tannase (n = 7) and β-galactosidase (n = 1) production, with the FB2 mean level of 3553–10,270 μg/kg, 1059–12,036 μg/kg, 3–7 μg/kg and 2–4 μg/kg on corn, 5455–9241 μg/kg, 559–2190 μg/kg, 4–9 μg/kg and 6–10 μg/kg on rice, 5959–7709 μg/kg, 9491–17,339 μg/kg, 8–14 μg/kg and 120–222 μg/kg on wheat bran, respectively. Comparatively, strains of Fusarium verticillioide were capable of producing fumonins simultaneously with broader spectrum including FB1, FB2 and FB3, but at a much lower level. In conclusion, it is necessary to evaluate FB2 production by A. niger before intended use in the food processing industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Regulated Mycotoxins and Other Microbial Metabolites in Dried Cassava Products from Nigeria
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 207; doi:10.3390/toxins9070207
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Dried cassava products are perceived as one of the potential sources of mycotoxin ingestion in human foods. Processing either contributes to the reduction of toxins or further exposes products to contamination by microorganisms that release metabolic toxins into the products. Thus, the prevalence
[...] Read more.
Dried cassava products are perceived as one of the potential sources of mycotoxin ingestion in human foods. Processing either contributes to the reduction of toxins or further exposes products to contamination by microorganisms that release metabolic toxins into the products. Thus, the prevalence of microbial metabolites in 373 processed cassava products was investigated in Nigeria. With the use of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the constituent analysis, a few major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1 and G1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and zearalenone) regulated in food crops by the Commission of the European Union were found at concentrations which are toxicologically acceptable in many other crops. Some bioactive compounds were detected at low concentrations in the cassava products. Therefore, the exposure of cassava consumers in Nigeria to regulated mycotoxins was estimated to be minimal. The results provide useful information regarding the probable safety of cassava products in Nigeria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 200; doi:10.3390/toxins9070200
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins,
[...] Read more.
Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg−1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2–4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Presence of Enniatins and Beauvericin in Romanian Wheat Samples: From Raw Material to Products for Direct Human Consumption
Toxins 2017, 9(6), 189; doi:10.3390/toxins9060189
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For
[...] Read more.
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population. ENB presented the highest incidence (41% in wheat and 32% in wheat-based products), with its maximum levels of 815 μg kg−1 and 170 μg kg−1 in wheat and wheat-based products, respectively. The correlation between the concentrations of ENB and ENB1 in wheat grain samples and farm practices (organic or conventional) was confirmed statistically (p < 0.05). This is the first study that provides comprehensive information about the influence of agricultural practice on emerging Fusarium mycotoxin presence in Romanian wheat samples and the estimated daily intake of ENs and BEA present in wheat-based products for human consumption commercialized in Romania. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ergot Alkaloids in Fattening Chickens (Broilers): Toxic Effects and Carry over Depending on Dietary Fat Proportion and Supplementation with Non-Starch-Polysaccharide (NSP) Hydrolyzing Enzymes
Toxins 2017, 9(4), 118; doi:10.3390/toxins9040118
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
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Abstract
Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins produced by Claviceps purpurea. EA-toxicity is poorly characterized for fattening chickens. Therefore, a dose–response study was performed to identify the lowest, and no observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL and NOAEL, respectively) based on several endpoints. Non-starch-polysaccharide (NSP)
[...] Read more.
Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins produced by Claviceps purpurea. EA-toxicity is poorly characterized for fattening chickens. Therefore, a dose–response study was performed to identify the lowest, and no observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL and NOAEL, respectively) based on several endpoints. Non-starch-polysaccharide (NSP) cleaving enzyme addition and dietary fat content were additionally considered as factors potentially influencing EA-toxicity. Feed intake was proven to respond most sensitively to the EA presence in the diets. This sensitivity appeared to be time-dependent. While LOAEL corresponded to a total dietary EA content of 5.7 mg/kg until Day 14 of age, it decreased to 2.03 mg/kg when birds were exposed for a period of 35 days. Consequently, NOAEL corresponded to an EA content of 2.49 mg/kg diet until Day 14 of age, while 1.94 mg/kg diet applied until Day 35 of age. Liver lesions indicating enzyme activities in serum were increased after 14 days of exposure. Dietary fat content and NSP-enzyme supplementation modified EA toxicity in an interactive manner. The EA residues in serum, bile, liver and breast meat were <5 ng/g suggesting a negligible carry over of intact EA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of pH and Temperature on the Stability of Fumonisins in Maize Products
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 88; doi:10.3390/toxins9030088
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper is a study of the stability of fumonisins in dough based on maize flour prepared in a phosphate buffer with a pH of 3.5, 5.5 or 7.5 and baked at a temperature within the range of 100–250 °C. Buffers with various
[...] Read more.
This paper is a study of the stability of fumonisins in dough based on maize flour prepared in a phosphate buffer with a pH of 3.5, 5.5 or 7.5 and baked at a temperature within the range of 100–250 °C. Buffers with various pH values were tested, since it is well-known that pH may significantly influence interactions of fumonisins with other substances. A standard analytical procedure was used to determine the concentration of free fumonisins. Hydrolysis in an alkaline medium was then applied to reveal the hidden forms, while the total fumonisins concentations was determined in another measurement. The total concentration of fumonisins was statistically higher in pH = 3.5 and pH = 5.5 than the concentration of free fumonisins; no similar difference was found at pH = 7.5. The applied phosphate buffer pH 7.5 may enhance solubility of fumonisins, which would increase extraction efficiency of free analytes, thereby decreasing the difference between concentrations of total and free fumonisins. Hydrolysed B1 fumonisin (HFB1) and partially hydrolysed B1 fumonisin (isomers a and b: PHFB1a and PHFB1b, respectively) were the main investigated substances. For baking temperatures below 220 °C, fumonisins were slightly more stable for pH = 5.5 than for pH = 3.5 and pH = 7.5. In both of these latter cases, the concentration of partially hydrolysed fumonisins grew initially (up to 200 °C) with an increase in the baking temperature, and then dropped. Similar behaviour was observed for free HFB1, which may suggest the following fumonisin degradation mechanism: initially, the tricarballylic acid (TCA) groups are removed from the molecules, and next, the HFB1 molecules disintegrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sterigmatocystin Occurrence in Paddy and Processed Rice Produced in Italy in the Years 2014–2015 and Distribution in Milled Rice Fractions
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 86; doi:10.3390/toxins9030086
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
The occurrence of sterigmatocystin (STC) in paddy and processed rice samples produced in Italy was surveyed. After extraction and purification, STC was analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. STC was detected in all paddy rice samples (n = 49), in the range 0.29–15.85 μg·kg−1
[...] Read more.
The occurrence of sterigmatocystin (STC) in paddy and processed rice samples produced in Italy was surveyed. After extraction and purification, STC was analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. STC was detected in all paddy rice samples (n = 49), in the range 0.29–15.85 μg·kg−1. As regards processed rice, a widespread contamination was found in brown and parboiled rice. All the brown rice samples were contaminated between 0.12 and 1.32 μg·kg−1; for parboiled rice, the incidence was 90.9% and the maximum level was 1.09 μg·kg−1. The contamination in white rice was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The STC distribution in different rice fractions, obtained by the de-hulling and polishing processes, was evaluated. After de-hulling, the STC percentage remaining in brown rice was in the range 21.2%–30.8%. The polishing process, from brown to white rice, caused another remarkable decrease of contamination; the STC remaining in white rice was 2.2%–8.3% of the amount found in paddy rice. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015

Open AccessReview Current Understanding of Acute Bovine Liver Disease in Australia
Toxins 2017, 9(1), 8; doi:10.3390/toxins9010008
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
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Abstract
Acute bovine liver disease (ABLD) is a hepatotoxicity principally of cattle which occurs in southern regions of Australia. Severely affected animals undergo rapid clinical progression with mortalities often occurring prior to the recognition of clinical signs. Less severely affected animals develop photosensitization and
[...] Read more.
Acute bovine liver disease (ABLD) is a hepatotoxicity principally of cattle which occurs in southern regions of Australia. Severely affected animals undergo rapid clinical progression with mortalities often occurring prior to the recognition of clinical signs. Less severely affected animals develop photosensitization and a proportion can develop liver failure. The characteristic histopathological lesion in acute fatal cases is severe, with acute necrosis of periportal hepatocytes with hemorrhage into the necrotic areas. Currently there are a small number of toxins that are known to cause periportal necrosis in cattle, although none of these have so far been linked to ABLD. Furthermore, ABLD has frequently been associated with the presence of rough dog’s tail grass (Cynosurus echinatus) and Drechslera spp. fungi in the pasture system, but it is currently unknown if these are etiological factors. Much of the knowledge about ABLD is contained within case reports, with very little experimental research investigating the specific cause(s). This review provides an overview of the current and most recently published knowledge of ABLD. It also draws on wider research and unpublished reports to suggest possible fungi and mycotoxins that may give rise to ABLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes
Toxins 2017, 9(1), 4; doi:10.3390/toxins9010004
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (T) and water activity (aw) conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium camemberti,
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (T) and water activity (aw) conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium camemberti, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. nalgiovense, P. nordicum, P. roqueforti, P. verrucosum were considered they were grown under different T (0–40 °C) and aw (0.78–0.99) regimes. The highest relative growth occurred around 25 °C; all the fungi were very susceptible to aw and 0.99 was optimal for almost all species (except for A. versicolor, awopt = 0.96). The highest toxin production occurred between 15 and 25 °C and 0.96–0.99 aw. Therefore, during grana cheese ripening, managed between 15 and 22 °C, ochratoxin A (OTA), penitrem A (PA), roquefortine-C (ROQ-C) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) are apparently at the highest production risk. Bete and logistic function described fungal growth under different T and aw regimes well, respectively. Bete function described also STC, PA, ROQ-C and OTA production as well as function of T. These models would be very useful as starting point to develop a mechanistic model to predict fungal growth and toxin production during cheese ripening and to help advising the most proper setting of environmental factors to minimize the contamination risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 347; doi:10.3390/toxins8120347
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1
[...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contrasting Roles of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Host-Mediated Interactions between Fusarium graminearum and Sitobion avenae
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 353; doi:10.3390/toxins8120353
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
PDF Full-text (1664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to
[...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection. Previous work has shown that grain aphids are repelled by wheat infected with DON-producing F. graminearum, and this study seeks to determine the influence of pathogen mycotoxins to host volatile chemistry. Volatile collections from infected hosts and olfactometer bioassays with alate aphids were performed. Infections with isolates that produced DON and NIV were compared, as well as a trichothecene deficient transformant derived from the NIV-producing isolate. This work confirmed the repellent nature of infected hosts with DON accumulation. NIV accumulation produced volatiles that were attractive to aphids. Attraction did not occur when NIV was absent and was, therefore, a direct consequence of NIV production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 301; doi:10.3390/toxins8100301
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight
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Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Different Toxicity Mechanisms for Citrinin and Ochratoxin A Revealed by Transcriptomic Analysis in Yeast
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 273; doi:10.3390/toxins8100273
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
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Abstract
Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are important mycotoxins, which frequently co-contaminate foodstuff. In order to assess the toxicologic threat posed by the two mycotoxins separately or in combination, their biological effects were studied here using genomic transcription profiling and specific live cell
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Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are important mycotoxins, which frequently co-contaminate foodstuff. In order to assess the toxicologic threat posed by the two mycotoxins separately or in combination, their biological effects were studied here using genomic transcription profiling and specific live cell gene expression reporters in yeast cells. Both CIT and OTA cause highly transient transcriptional activation of different stress genes, which is greatly enhanced by the disruption of the multidrug exporter Pdr5. Therefore, we performed genome-wide transcription profiling experiments with the pdr5 mutant in response to acute CIT, OTA, or combined CIT/OTA exposure. We found that CIT and OTA activate divergent and largely nonoverlapping gene sets in yeast. CIT mainly caused the rapid induction of antioxidant and drug extrusion-related gene functions, while OTA mainly deregulated developmental genes related with yeast sporulation and sexual reproduction, having only a minor effect on the antioxidant response. The simultaneous exposure to CIT and OTA gave rise to a genomic response, which combined the specific features of the separated mycotoxin treatments. The application of stress-specific mutants and reporter gene fusions further confirmed that both mycotoxins have divergent biological effects in cells. Our results indicate that CIT exposure causes a strong oxidative stress, which triggers a massive transcriptional antioxidant and drug extrusion response, while OTA mainly deregulates developmental genes and only marginally induces the antioxidant defense. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts
Toxins 2016, 8(8), 235; doi:10.3390/toxins8080235
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 8 August 2016
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Abstract
Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes
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Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most frequently involved in grape deterioration, secondary infections by Penicillium spp. are quite common, especially in cool areas with high humidity and in wines obtained by partially dried grapes. In this work, a single-tube nested real-time PCR approach—successfully applied to hazelnut and peanut allergen detection—was tested for the first time to trace Penicillium spp. in musts and wines. The method consisted of two sets of primers specifically designed to target the β-tubulin gene, to be simultaneously applied with the aim of lowering the detection limit of conventional real-time PCR. The assay was able to detect up to 1 fg of Penicillium DNA. As confirmation, patulin content of representative samples was determined. Most of analyzed wines/musts returned contaminated results at >50 ppb and a 76% accordance with molecular assay was observed. Although further large-scale trials are needed, these results encourage the use of the newly developed method in the pre-screening of fresh and processed grapes for the presence of Penicillium DNA before the evaluation of related toxins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder]
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 218; doi:10.3390/toxins8070218
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
PDF Full-text (2851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was
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Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal. Full article
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Open AccessComment Comments on “Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China. Toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875”— in Attributing Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis Within the Genus Penicillium Occurring on Natural Agricultural Produce
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 166; doi:10.3390/toxins8060166
Received: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract
The unusual attribution of trace amounts of ochratoxin A in some Chinese food commodities to Penicillium polonicum is questioned by European experience in searches for ochratoxinogenic food-spoilage Penicillia, where mistaken attribution is now known to have been due to cryptic Penicillium verrucosum contamination.
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The unusual attribution of trace amounts of ochratoxin A in some Chinese food commodities to Penicillium polonicum is questioned by European experience in searches for ochratoxinogenic food-spoilage Penicillia, where mistaken attribution is now known to have been due to cryptic Penicillium verrucosum contamination. Consequently, selection of single-spore isolates is recommended as pre-requisite for attributing mycotoxin biosynthetic potential to fungi. Full article
Open AccessArticle Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 160; doi:10.3390/toxins8060160
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
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Abstract
The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain
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The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of samples). Depending on the toxin, they were found at levels between 8 and 3328 µg·kg−1. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts
Toxins 2016, 8(2), 45; doi:10.3390/toxins8020045
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to
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Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography
Toxins 2016, 8(1), 20; doi:10.3390/toxins8010020
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice,
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Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. Full article
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2015

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Open AccessArticle Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4350-4365; doi:10.3390/toxins7104350
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
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Abstract
The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this
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The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. Full article
Open AccessReview Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4111-4130; doi:10.3390/toxins7104111
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 3 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious
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Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Toxins 2015, 7(9), 3465-3480; doi:10.3390/toxins7093465
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg
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The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3330-3343; doi:10.3390/toxins7083330
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five
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The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Presence of Multiple Mycotoxins and Other Fungal Metabolites in Native Grasses from a Wetland Ecosystem in Argentina Intended for Grazing Cattle
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3309-3329; doi:10.3390/toxins7083309
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of several fungal metabolites, including mycotoxins in natural grasses (Poaceae) intended for grazing cattle. A total number of 72 and 77 different metabolites were detected on 106 and 69 grass samples collected during
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of several fungal metabolites, including mycotoxins in natural grasses (Poaceae) intended for grazing cattle. A total number of 72 and 77 different metabolites were detected on 106 and 69 grass samples collected during 2011 and 2014, respectively. A total of 60 metabolites were found across both years. Among the few mycotoxins considered toxic for ruminants, no samples of natural grasses were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, ergot alkaloids, and gliotoxin, among others. However, we were able to detect important metabolites (toxic to ruminants) such as type A trichothecenes, mainly T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin (up to 5000 µg/kg each), and zearalenone (up to 2000 µg/kg), all at very high frequencies and levels. Other fungal metabolites that were found to be prevalent were other Fusarium metabolites like beauvericin, equisetin and aurofusarin, metabolites produced by Alternaria spp., sterigmatocystin and its precursors and anthrachinone derivatives. It is important to point out that the profile of common metabolites was shared during both years of sampling, and also that the occurrence of important metabolites is not a sporadic event. Considering that this area of temperate grassland is used for grazing cattle all year long due to the richness in palatable grasses (Poaceae), the present work represents a starting point for further studies on the occurrence of multi-mycotoxins in natural grasses in order to have a complete picture of the extent of cattle exposure. Also, the present study shows that the presence of zeranol in urine of beef cattle may not be a consequence of illegal use of this banned substance, but the product of the natural occurrence of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in natural grasses intended for cattle feeding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Zearalenone and Its Derivatives α-Zearalenol and β-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3297-3308; doi:10.3390/toxins7083297
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives α-ZOL and β-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into β-ZOL (53%) and α-ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of α-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of β-ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of β-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and α-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells. Full article
Open AccessReview Genetic Factors Involved in Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize Kernels and Their Implications in Maize Agronomic Management and Breeding
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3267-3296; doi:10.3390/toxins7083267
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient
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Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient genetic variability among maize to develop resistance to fumonisin contamination and to breed varieties with contamination at safe levels. In addition, ascertaining which environmental factors are the most important in a region will allow the implementation of risk monitoring programs and suitable cultural practices to reduce the impact of such environmental variables. The current paper reviews all works done to address the influence of environmental variables on fumonisin accumulation, the genetics of maize resistance to fumonisin accumulation, and the search for the biochemical and/or structural mechanisms of the maize plant that could be involved in resistance to fumonisin contamination. We also explore the outcomes of breeding programs and risk monitoring of undertaken projects. Full article
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Open AccessReview Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3057-3111; doi:10.3390/toxins7083057
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be
[...] Read more.
Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3012-3029; doi:10.3390/toxins7083012
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated
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Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 2773-2790; doi:10.3390/toxins7082773
Received: 22 April 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
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Abstract
In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of
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In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range. Full article
Open AccessReview Fusariotoxins in Avian Species: Toxicokinetics, Metabolism and Persistence in Tissues
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2289-2305; doi:10.3390/toxins7062289
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 17 May 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusariotoxins are mycotoxins produced by different species of the genus Fusarium whose occurrence and toxicity vary considerably. Despite the fact avian species are highly exposed to fusariotoxins, the avian species are considered as resistant to their toxic effects, partly because of low absorption
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Fusariotoxins are mycotoxins produced by different species of the genus Fusarium whose occurrence and toxicity vary considerably. Despite the fact avian species are highly exposed to fusariotoxins, the avian species are considered as resistant to their toxic effects, partly because of low absorption and rapid elimination, thereby reducing the risk of persistence of residues in tissues destined for human consumption. This review focuses on the main fusariotoxins deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 and B2. The key parameters used in the toxicokinetic studies are presented along with the factors responsible for their variations. Then, each toxin is analyzed separately. Results of studies conducted with radiolabelled toxins are compared with the more recent data obtained with HPLC/MS-MS detection. The metabolic pathways of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone are described, with attention paid to the differences among the avian species. Although no metabolite of fumonisins has been reported in avian species, some differences in toxicokinetics have been observed. All the data reviewed suggest that the toxicokinetics of fusariotoxins in avian species differs from those in mammals, and that variations among the avian species themselves should be assessed. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2188-2197; doi:10.3390/toxins7062188
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples
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Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1341-1354; doi:10.3390/toxins7041341
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group),
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This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group), 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group) and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group). After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1), glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2) and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1) were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Effects on Sphingoid Bases and Cytokines in Chickens Fed Diets Prepared with Fusarium Verticillioides Culture Material Containing Fumonisins
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1253-1272; doi:10.3390/toxins7041253
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and
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In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and on the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So; a biomarker of FB effect due to disruption of sphingolipid metabolism). Male broilers were assigned to 6 diets (6 cages/diet; 6 birds/cage) from hatch to 20 days containing 0.4, 5.6, 11.3, 17.5, 47.8, or 104.8 mg FB/kg diet. Exposure to FB altered the Sa/So ratio in all tissues analyzed, albeit to varying extents. Linear dose-responses were observed in the kidney, jejunum and cecum. The liver and the ileum were very sensitive and data fit a cubic and quadratic polynomial model, respectively. Gene expression in the small intestine revealed low but significant upregulations of cytokines involved in the pro-inflammatory, Th1/Th17 and Treg responses, especially at 10 days of age. Interestingly, the cecal tonsils exhibited a biphasic response. Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg. In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry. Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage
Toxins 2015, 7(3), 743-754; doi:10.3390/toxins7030743
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were
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Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification and Quantification of Fumonisin A1, A2, and A3 in Corn by High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 582-592; doi:10.3390/toxins7020582
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three compounds, hypothesized as fumonisin A1 (FA1), fumonisin A2 (FA2), and fumonisin A3 (FA3), were detected in a corn sample contaminated with mycotoxins by high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). One of them has been identified as FA1 synthesized by the acetylation
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Three compounds, hypothesized as fumonisin A1 (FA1), fumonisin A2 (FA2), and fumonisin A3 (FA3), were detected in a corn sample contaminated with mycotoxins by high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). One of them has been identified as FA1 synthesized by the acetylation of fumonisin B1 (FB1), and established a method for its quantification. Herein, we identified the two remaining compounds as FA2 and FA3, which were acetylated fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3), respectively. Moreover, we examined a method for the simultaneous analysis of FA1, FA2, FA3, FB1, FB2, and FB3. The corn samples were prepared by extraction using a QuEChERS kit and purification using a multifunctional cartridge. The linearity, recovery, repeatability, limit of detection, and limit of quantification of the method were >0.99, 82.9%–104.6%, 3.7%–9.5%, 0.02–0.60 μg/kg, and 0.05–1.98 μg/kg, respectively. The simultaneous analysis of the six fumonisins revealed that FA1, FA2, and FA3 were present in all corn samples contaminated with FB1, FB2, and FB3. The results suggested that corn marketed for consumption can be considered as being contaminated with both the fumonisin B-series and with fumonisin A-series. This report presents the first identification and quantification of FA1, FA2, and FA3 in corn samples. Full article
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