Special Issue "Peptide Vaccine"

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A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Istvan Toth

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: medicinal chemistry; drug delivery with particular interest in peptide; gene and vaccine delivery; vaccine adjuvants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Infectious diseases cause 15–17 million deaths worldwide per year, contribute to one third of premature death, and are responsible for almost 40% of human disability. Vaccination is a successful and cost effective intervention, which led to the eradication of smallpox in 1979 (confirmed by the World Health Organization), and control of polio, diphtheria, measles, and rubella, amongst other infectious diseases. The majority of current vaccines are microbe-based, either using an attenuated whole-microbe, or part thereof. Unfortunately, this approach carries the risk of stimulating an autoimmune response, the possible reversion to virulence, and is hampered by a limited shelf life. Synthetic subunit peptide antigen based vaccines offer a solution to these problems. Subunit peptide vaccines can be designed to contain the minimal microbial component necessary to stimulate an appropriate immune response. This has the advantage of removing unnecessary components, thus decreasing the risk of stimulating an autoimmune response or other adverse effects. Synthetic vaccines can also be tailored to stimulate a targeted immune response. Unfortunately, the minimal nature of synthetic peptide vaccines results in poor recognition by the immune system because they lack the ‘danger signals’ of whole microbes. Although this can be overcome by the addition of strong adjuvants (immunostimulants), alternative mechanisms must be developed to avoid this complication. This Special Issue of Vaccines contains reviews and research articles that focus on the design of peptide based vaccines.

Prof. Dr. Istvan Toth
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • peptide antigens
  • subunit vaccines
  • lipid based adjuvant
  • nanovaccines
  • polymeric adjuvants
  • dendrimers

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Doubly Phosphorylated Peptide Vaccines to Protect Transgenic P301S Mice against Alzheimer’s Disease Like Tau Aggregation
Vaccines 2014, 2(3), 601-623; doi:10.3390/vaccines2030601
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 29 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques are potential targets for active and passive immunotherapies. In this study we used the transgenic mouse model P301S for active immunizations with peptide vaccines composed of a double phosphorylated tau neoepitope (pSer202/pThr205, pThr212/pSer214, pThr231/pSer235) and an
[...] Read more.
Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques are potential targets for active and passive immunotherapies. In this study we used the transgenic mouse model P301S for active immunizations with peptide vaccines composed of a double phosphorylated tau neoepitope (pSer202/pThr205, pThr212/pSer214, pThr231/pSer235) and an immunomodulatory T cell epitope from the tetanus toxin or tuberculosis antigen Ag85B. Importantly, the designed vaccine combining Alzheimer’s disease (AD) specific B cell epitopes with foreign (bacterial) T cell epitopes induced fast immune responses with high IgG1 titers after prophylactic immunization that subsequently decreased over the observation period. The effectiveness of the immunization was surveyed by evaluating the animal behavior, as well as the pathology in the brain by biochemical and histochemical techniques. Immunized mice clearly lived longer with reduced paralysis than placebo-treated mice. Additionally, they performed significantly better in rotarod and beam walk tests at the age of 20 weeks, indicating that the disease development was slowed down. Forty-eight weeks old vaccinated mice passed the beam walk test significantly better than control animals, which together with the increased survival rates undoubtedly prove the treatment effect. In conclusion, the data provide strong evidence that active immune therapies can reduce toxic effects of deposits formed in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
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Open AccessArticle Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 380-396; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020380
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
PDF Full-text (810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting
[...] Read more.
Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design) long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation) than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH) microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test) than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%). In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)

Review

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Open AccessReview Peptide Vaccines for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus
Vaccines 2014, 2(4), 832-840; doi:10.3390/vaccines2040832
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vaccines are commonly used as a preventive medicine for infectious diseases worldwide; however, the trial for an amyloid beta vaccine against Alzheimer’s disease will open a new concept in vaccination. In case of therapeutic vaccines for cancer, their targets are usually specific antigens
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Vaccines are commonly used as a preventive medicine for infectious diseases worldwide; however, the trial for an amyloid beta vaccine against Alzheimer’s disease will open a new concept in vaccination. In case of therapeutic vaccines for cancer, their targets are usually specific antigens in cancer cells, allowing activated cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) to attach and remove the antigen-presenting cancer cells. In our therapeutic vaccines against hypertension, the target is angiotensin II (Ang II) and induced anti-Ang II antibodies could efficiently ameliorate high blood pressure. Similarly, we developed the therapeutic vaccine against DPP4 for diabetes mellitus. However, because Ang II or DPP4 is an endogenous hormone, we must avoid autoimmune disease induced by these vaccines. Therefore, our system was used to design a therapeutic vaccine that elicits anti-Ang II or DPP4 antibodies without CTL activation against Ang II or DPP4. In this review, we will describe our concept of therapeutic vaccines for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
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Open AccessReview Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research
Vaccines 2014, 2(3), 654-685; doi:10.3390/vaccines2030654
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is currently no vaccine available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminth disease, schistosomiasis. Despite many researchers working towards this goal, one of the focuses has been on identifying new antigenic targets. The bar to achieve protective efficacy in
[...] Read more.
There is currently no vaccine available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminth disease, schistosomiasis. Despite many researchers working towards this goal, one of the focuses has been on identifying new antigenic targets. The bar to achieve protective efficacy in humans was set at a consistent induction of 40% protection or better by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and although this is a modest goal, it is yet to be reached with the six most promising schistosomiasis vaccine candidates (Sm28GST, IrV5, Sm14, paramyosin, TPI, and Sm23). Adjuvant selection has a large impact on the effectiveness of the vaccine, and the use of adjuvants to aid in the stimulation of the immune system is a critical step and a major variable affecting vaccine development. In addition to a comprehensive understanding of the immune system, level of protection and the desired immune response required, there is also a need for a standardised and effective adjuvant formulation. This review summarises the status of adjuvants that have been or are being employed in schistosomiasis vaccine development focusing on immunisation outcomes at preclinical and clinical stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
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Open AccessReview Strategy for Designing a Synthetic Tumor Vaccine: Multi-Component, Multivalency and Antigen Modification
Vaccines 2014, 2(3), 549-562; doi:10.3390/vaccines2030549
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synthetic tumor vaccines have been proven to be promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, the limitation of the specificity and efficiency of the synthetic tumor vaccines need further improvements. To overcome these difficulties, additional tumor-associated targets need to be identified, and optimized structural designs
[...] Read more.
Synthetic tumor vaccines have been proven to be promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, the limitation of the specificity and efficiency of the synthetic tumor vaccines need further improvements. To overcome these difficulties, additional tumor-associated targets need to be identified, and optimized structural designs of vaccines need to be elaborated. In this review, we summarized the main strategies pursued in the design of synthetic tumor vaccines, such as multi-component, multivalency, antigen modification and other possible ways to improve the efficiency of synthetic tumor vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
Open AccessReview Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges
Vaccines 2014, 2(3), 515-536; doi:10.3390/vaccines2030515
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load
[...] Read more.
Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
Open AccessReview Peptide Dose and/or Structure in Vaccines as a Determinant of T Cell Responses
Vaccines 2014, 2(3), 537-548; doi:10.3390/vaccines2030537
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While T cells recognise the complex of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the cell surface, changes in the dose and/or structure of the peptide component can have profound effects on T cell activation and function. In addition, the repertoire of T
[...] Read more.
While T cells recognise the complex of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the cell surface, changes in the dose and/or structure of the peptide component can have profound effects on T cell activation and function. In addition, the repertoire of T cells capable of responding to any given peptide is variable, but broader than a single clone. Consequently, peptide parameters that affect the interaction between T cells and peptide/MHC have been shown to select particular T cell clones for expansion and this impacts on clearance of disease. T cells with high functional avidity are selected on low doses of peptide, while low avidity T cells are favoured in high peptide concentrations. Altering the structure of the peptide ligand can also influence the selection and function of peptide-specific T cell clones. In this review, we will explore the evidence that the choice of peptide dose or the structure of the peptide are critical parameters in an effective vaccine designed to activate T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 422-462; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020422
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose
[...] Read more.
High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables), and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)

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