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Special Issue "Antivirals Against Poxviruses"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Antivirals & Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Earl R. Kern

The University of Alabama at Birmingham, CHB 128, 1600 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35216, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although smallpox was eradicated about 30 years ago, there are continuing concerns regarding the intentional or accidental release of variola virus in a population that has little immunity due to the cessation of universal vaccination programs.
Additionally, the inadvertent importation of monkeypox virus into the United States through the sale of infected rodents reinforced the need for effective therapies that could be used during outbreaks of these infections. In response to these concerns, additional resources have been allocated to the research, discovery and development of new antiviral agents and significant advances have been achieved. At the present time there is no licensed drug for the treatment of any orthopoxvirus infection, however, cidofovir has been approved for use in the emergency treatment of smallpox outbreaks or in complications following vaccination. Two additional molecules, CMX001, an orally active analog of cidofovir, and ST-246, a small molecule, are highly active in vitro and in a variety of experimental orthopoxvirus infections in animals including non-human primates. Neither one has been approved due to the inability to conduct clinical studies for efficacy. This special issue will focus primarily on the development of these promising molecules and particularly on the use of animal model systems used to evaluate new antiviral drugs for treatment of orthopoxvirus infections in humans.

Prof. Dr. Earl R. Kern
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • orthopoxvirus
  • poxvirus
  • antiviral
  • animal model
  • cidofovir
  • CMX001
  • ST-246
  • variola virus
  • monkeypox virus
  • vaccinia virus
  • cowpox virus
  • rabbitpox virus
  • ectromelia virus

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of CMX001 for the Treatment of Poxvirus Infections
Viruses 2010, 2(12), 2740-2762; doi:10.3390/v2122740
Received: 28 October 2010 / Revised: 17 November 2010 / Accepted: 22 November 2010 / Published: 17 December 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (439 KB)
Abstract
CMX001 (phosphonic acid, [[(S)-2-(4-amino-2-oxo-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]mono[3-(hexadecyloxy)propyl] ester) is a lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, cidofovir (CDV). CMX001 is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the prophylaxis of human cytomegalovirus infection and under development using the Animal Rule for smallpox infection. It [...] Read more.
CMX001 (phosphonic acid, [[(S)-2-(4-amino-2-oxo-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]mono[3-(hexadecyloxy)propyl] ester) is a lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, cidofovir (CDV). CMX001 is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the prophylaxis of human cytomegalovirus infection and under development using the Animal Rule for smallpox infection. It has proven effective in reduction of morbidity and mortality in animal models of human smallpox, even after the onset of lesions and other clinical signs of disease. CMX001 and CDV are active against all five families of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that cause human morbidity and mortality, including orthopoxviruses such as variola virus, the cause of human smallpox. However, the clinical utility of CDV is limited by the requirement for intravenous dosing and a high incidence of acute kidney toxicity. The risk of nephrotoxicity necessitates pre-hydration and probenecid administration in a health care facility, further complicating high volume CDV use in an emergency situation. Compared with CDV, CMX001 has a number of advantages for treatment of smallpox in an emergency including greater potency in vitro against all dsDNA viruses that cause human disease, a high genetic barrier to resistance, convenient oral administration as a tablet or liquid, and no evidence to date of nephrotoxicity in either animals or humans. The apparent lack of nephrotoxicity observed with CMX001 in vivo is because it is not a substrate for the human organic anion transporters that actively secrete CDV into kidney cells. The ability to test the safety and efficacy of CMX001 in patients with life-threatening dsDNA virus infections which share many basic traits with variola is a major advantage in the development of this antiviral for a smallpox indication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans
Viruses 2011, 3(2), 63-82; doi:10.3390/v3020063
Received: 23 December 2010 / Accepted: 4 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1335 KB)
Abstract
CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3‑(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has [...] Read more.
CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3‑(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Efficacy of CMX001 as a Post Exposure Antiviral in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans
Viruses 2011, 3(1), 47-62; doi:10.3390/v3010047
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (660 KB)
Abstract
CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated [...] Read more.
CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission), we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Cidofovir Activity against Poxvirus Infections
Viruses 2010, 2(12), 2803-2830; doi:10.3390/v2122803
Received: 10 November 2010 / Revised: 9 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 22 December 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (315 KB)
Abstract
Cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine, HPMPC] is an acyclic nucleoside analog approved since 1996 for clinical use in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in AIDS patients. Cidofovir (CDV) has broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, including herpes-, adeno-, polyoma-, papilloma- and poxviruses. Among poxviruses, cidofovir [...] Read more.
Cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine, HPMPC] is an acyclic nucleoside analog approved since 1996 for clinical use in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in AIDS patients. Cidofovir (CDV) has broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, including herpes-, adeno-, polyoma-, papilloma- and poxviruses. Among poxviruses, cidofovir has shown in vitro activity against orthopox [vaccinia, variola (smallpox), cowpox, monkeypox, camelpox, ectromelia], molluscipox [molluscum contagiosum] and parapox [orf] viruses. The anti-poxvirus activity of cidofovir in vivo has been shown in different models of infection when the compound was administered either intraperitoneal, intranasal (aerosolized) or topically. In humans, cidofovir has been successfully used for the treatment of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus and orf virus in immunocompromised patients. CDV remains a reference compound against poxviruses and holds potential for the therapy and short-term prophylaxis of not only orthopox- but also parapox- and molluscipoxvirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
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Open AccessReview Monkeypox Virus Infections in Small Animal Models for Evaluation of Anti-Poxvirus Agents
Viruses 2010, 2(12), 2763-2776; doi:10.3390/v2122763
Received: 10 November 2010 / Revised: 8 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 20 December 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (219 KB)
Abstract
An ideal animal model for the study of a human disease is one which utilizes a route of infection that mimics the natural transmission of the pathogen; the ability to obtain disease with an infectious dose equivalent to that causing disease in [...] Read more.
An ideal animal model for the study of a human disease is one which utilizes a route of infection that mimics the natural transmission of the pathogen; the ability to obtain disease with an infectious dose equivalent to that causing disease in humans; as well having a disease course, morbidity and mortality similar to that seen with human disease. Additionally, the animal model should have a mode(s) of transmission that mimics human cases. The development of small animal models for the study of monkeypox virus (MPXV) has been quite extensive for the relatively short period of time this pathogen has been known, although only a few of these models have been used to study anti-poxvirus agents. We will review those MPXV small animal models that have been developed thus far for the study of therapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Treatment of Vaccinia and Cowpox Virus Infections in Mice with CMX001 and ST-246
Viruses 2010, 2(12), 2681-2695; doi:10.3390/v2122681
Received: 8 November 2010 / Revised: 6 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (245 KB)
Abstract
Although a large number of compounds have been identified with antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses in tissue culture systems, it is highly preferred that these compounds have activity in vivo before they can be seriously considered for further development. One of the most [...] Read more.
Although a large number of compounds have been identified with antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses in tissue culture systems, it is highly preferred that these compounds have activity in vivo before they can be seriously considered for further development. One of the most commonly used animal models for the confirmation of this activity has been the use of mice infected with either vaccinia or cowpox viruses. These model systems have the advantage that they are relatively inexpensive, readily available and do not require any special containment facilities; therefore, relatively large numbers of compounds can be evaluated in vivo for their activity. The two antiviral agents that have progressed from preclinical studies to human safety trials for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections are the cidofovir analog, CMX001, and an inhibitor of extracellular virus formation, ST-246. These compounds are the ones most likely to be used in the event of a bioterror attack. The purpose of this communication is to review the advantages and disadvantages of using mice infected with vaccinia and cowpox virus as surrogate models for human orthopoxvirus infections and to summarize the activity of CMX001 and ST-246 in these model infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Development of ST-246® for Treatment of Poxvirus Infections
Viruses 2010, 2(11), 2409-2435; doi:10.3390/v2112409
Received: 18 September 2010 / Revised: 26 October 2010 / Accepted: 26 October 2010 / Published: 3 November 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (422 KB)
Abstract
ST-246 (Tecovirimat) is a small synthetic antiviral compound being developed to treat pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections of humans. The compound was discovered as part of a high throughput screen designed to identify inhibitors of vaccinia virus-induced cytopathic effects. The antiviral activity is specific [...] Read more.
ST-246 (Tecovirimat) is a small synthetic antiviral compound being developed to treat pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections of humans. The compound was discovered as part of a high throughput screen designed to identify inhibitors of vaccinia virus-induced cytopathic effects. The antiviral activity is specific for orthopoxviruses and the compound does not inhibit the replication of other RNA- and DNA-containing viruses or inhibit cell proliferation at concentrations of compound that are antiviral. ST-246 targets vaccinia virus p37, a viral protein required for envelopment and secretion of extracellular forms of virus. The compound is orally bioavailable and protects multiple animal species from lethal orthopoxvirus challenge. Preclinical safety pharmacology studies in mice and non-human primates indicate that ST-246 is readily absorbed by the oral route and well tolerated with the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) in mice measured at 2000 mg/kg and the no observable effect level (NOEL) in non-human primates measured at 300 mg/kg. Drug substance and drug product processes have been developed and commercial scale batches have been produced using Good Manufacturing Processes (GMP). Human phase I clinical trials have shown that ST-246 is safe and well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the results of the clinical evaluation, once a day dosing should provide plasma drug exposure in the range predicted to be antiviral based on data from efficacy studies in animal models of orthopoxvirus disease. These data support the use of ST-246 as a therapeutic to treat pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections of humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Therapeutic Vaccines and Antibodies for Treatment of Orthopoxvirus Infections
Viruses 2010, 2(10), 2381-2403; doi:10.3390/v2102381
Received: 19 September 2010 / Revised: 9 October 2010 / Accepted: 13 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (101 KB)
Abstract
Despite the eradication of smallpox several decades ago, variola and monkeypox viruses still have the potential to become significant threats to public health. The current licensed live vaccinia virus-based smallpox vaccine is extremely effective as a prophylactic vaccine to prevent orthopoxvirus infections, [...] Read more.
Despite the eradication of smallpox several decades ago, variola and monkeypox viruses still have the potential to become significant threats to public health. The current licensed live vaccinia virus-based smallpox vaccine is extremely effective as a prophylactic vaccine to prevent orthopoxvirus infections, but because of safety issues, it is no longer given as a routine vaccine to the general population. In the event of serious human orthopoxvirus infections, it is important to have treatments available for individual patients as well as their close contacts. The smallpox vaccine and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) were used in the past as therapeutics for patients exposed to smallpox. VIG was also used in patients who were at high risk of developing complications from smallpox vaccination. Thus post-exposure vaccination and VIG treatments may again become important therapeutic modalities. This paper summarizes some of the historic use of the smallpox vaccine and immunoglobulins in the post-exposure setting in humans and reviews in detail the newer animal studies that address the use of therapeutic vaccines and immunoglobulins in orthopoxvirus infections as well as the development of new therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Synthesis and Early Development of Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir: An Oral Antipoxvirus Nucleoside Phosphonate
Viruses 2010, 2(10), 2213-2225; doi:10.3390/v2102213
Received: 26 August 2010 / Revised: 8 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) is a novel ether lipid conjugate of (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonoylmethoxypropyl)-cytosine (CDV) which exhibits a remarkable increase in antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses compared with CDV. In contrast to CDV, HDP-CDV is orally active and lacks the nephrotoxicity of CDV itself. Increased [...] Read more.
Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) is a novel ether lipid conjugate of (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonoylmethoxypropyl)-cytosine (CDV) which exhibits a remarkable increase in antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses compared with CDV. In contrast to CDV, HDP-CDV is orally active and lacks the nephrotoxicity of CDV itself. Increased oral bioavailability and increased cellular uptake is facilitated by the lipid portion of the molecule which is responsible for the improved activity profile. The lipid portion of HDP-CDV is cleaved in the cell, releasing CDV which is converted to CDV diphosphate, the active metabolite. HDP-CDV is a highly effective agent against a variety of orthopoxvirus infections in animal models of disease including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox and ectromelia. Its activity was recently demonstrated in a case of human disseminated vaccinia infection after it was added to a multiple drug regimen. In addition to the activity against orthopoxviruses, HDP-CDV (CMX001) is active against all double stranded DNA viruses including CMV, HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV, adenovirus, BK virus, orf, JC, and papilloma viruses, and is under clinical evaluation as a treatment for human infections with these agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Use of the Aerosol Rabbitpox Virus Model for Evaluation of Anti-Poxvirus Agents
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 2096-2107; doi:10.3390/v2092096
Received: 26 August 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (855 KB)
Abstract
Smallpox is an acute disease caused by infection with variola virus that has had historic effects on the human population due to its virulence and infectivity. Because variola remains a threat to humans, the discovery and development of novel pox therapeutics and [...] Read more.
Smallpox is an acute disease caused by infection with variola virus that has had historic effects on the human population due to its virulence and infectivity. Because variola remains a threat to humans, the discovery and development of novel pox therapeutics and vaccines has been an area of intense focus. As variola is a uniquely human virus lacking a robust animal model, the development of rational therapeutic or vaccine approaches for variola requires the use of model systems that reflect the clinical aspects of human infection. Many laboratory animal models of poxviral disease have been developed over the years to study host response and to evaluate new therapeutics and vaccines for the treatment or prevention of human smallpox. Rabbitpox (rabbitpox virus infection in rabbits) is a severe and often lethal infection that has been identified as an ideal disease model for the study of poxviruses in a non-rodent species. The aerosol infection model (aerosolized rabbitpox infection) embodies many of the desired aspects of the disease syndrome that involves the respiratory system and thus may serve as an appropriate model for evaluation of antivirals under development for the therapeutic treatment of human smallpox. In this review we summarize the aerosol model of rabbitpox, discuss the development efforts that have thus far used this model for antiviral testing, and comment on the prospects for its use in future evaluations requiring a poxviral model with a focus on respiratory infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Antiviral Activity of 4'-thioIDU and Thymidine Analogs against Orthopoxviruses
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 1968-1983; doi:10.3390/v2091968
Received: 5 August 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 7 September 2010 / Published: 16 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (306 KB)
Abstract
The search for effective therapies for orthopoxvirus infections has identified diverse classes of molecules with antiviral activity. Pyrimidine analogs, such as 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (idoxuridine, IDU) were among the first compounds identified with antiviral activity against a number of orthopoxviruses and have been reported [...] Read more.
The search for effective therapies for orthopoxvirus infections has identified diverse classes of molecules with antiviral activity. Pyrimidine analogs, such as 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (idoxuridine, IDU) were among the first compounds identified with antiviral activity against a number of orthopoxviruses and have been reported to be active both in vitro and in animal models of infection. More recently, additional analogs have been reported to have improved antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses including several derivatives of deoxyuridine with large substituents in the 5 position, as well as analogs with modifications in the deoxyribose moiety including (north)-methanocarbathymidine, and 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine (4'-thioIDU). The latter molecule has proven to have good antiviral activity against the orthopoxviruses both in vitro and in vivo and has the potential to be an effective therapy in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Ectromelia Virus Infections of Mice as a Model to Support the Licensure of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Therapeutics
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 1918-1932; doi:10.3390/v2091918
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (759 KB)
Abstract
The absence of herd immunity to orthopoxviruses and the concern that variola or monkeypox viruses could be used for bioterroristic activities has stimulated the development of therapeutics and safer prophylactics. One major limitation in this process is the lack of accessible human [...] Read more.
The absence of herd immunity to orthopoxviruses and the concern that variola or monkeypox viruses could be used for bioterroristic activities has stimulated the development of therapeutics and safer prophylactics. One major limitation in this process is the lack of accessible human orthopoxvirus infections for clinical efficacy trials; however, drug licensure can be based on orthopoxvirus animal challenge models as described in the “Animal Efficacy Rule”. One such challenge model uses ectromelia virus, an orthopoxvirus, whose natural host is the mouse and is the etiological agent of mousepox. The genetic similarity of ectromelia virus to variola and monkeypox viruses, the common features of the resulting disease, and the convenience of the mouse as a laboratory animal underscores its utility in the study of orthopoxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of therapeutics and prophylactics. In this review we outline how mousepox has been used as a model for smallpox. We also discuss mousepox in the context of mouse strain, route of infection, infectious dose, disease progression, and recovery from infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)
Open AccessReview Historical Perspectives in the Development of Antiviral Agents Against Poxviruses
Viruses 2010, 2(6), 1322-1339; doi:10.3390/v2061322
Received: 19 April 2010 / Revised: 28 May 2010 / Accepted: 28 May 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VV) served as the model virus for which the first antivirals, the thiosemicarbazones, were identified. This dates back to 1950; and, although there is at present no single antiviral drug specifically licensed for the chemotherapy or -prophylaxis of [...] Read more.
The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VV) served as the model virus for which the first antivirals, the thiosemicarbazones, were identified. This dates back to 1950; and, although there is at present no single antiviral drug specifically licensed for the chemotherapy or -prophylaxis of poxvirus infections, numerous candidate compounds have been described over the past 50 years. These compounds include interferon and inducers thereof (i.e., polyacrylic acid), 5-substituted 2’-deoxyuridines (i.e., idoxuridine), IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (such as cidofovir) and alkoxyalkyl prodrugs thereof (such as CMX001), viral egress inhibitors (such as tecovirimat), and cellular kinase inhibitors (such as imatinib). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Poxviruses)

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