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Special Issue "Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Quentin J. Sattentau

The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +44 1865 275511
Interests: retrovirus-receptor interactions; HIV neutralising antibody vaccine; structure/function studies on the HIV envelope glycoproteins; reactive carbonyls in allergy and autoimmunity

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Retroviruses and the Third Synapse
Viruses 2010, 2(4), 1008-1010; doi:10.3390/v2041008
Received: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 15 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
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Abstract
The direct movement of viruses between contacting cells as a mode of dissemination distinct from the release of cell-free virions was hinted at in pioneering experiments first reported almost eighty years ago [1], and confirmed and extended 30 years later [2,3]. This early
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The direct movement of viruses between contacting cells as a mode of dissemination distinct from the release of cell-free virions was hinted at in pioneering experiments first reported almost eighty years ago [1], and confirmed and extended 30 years later [2,3]. This early work was carried out using the tools of the time in the absence of the modern cell biological, immunological and virological techniques available today. As such, although many of the basic concepts were established for cell-to-cell spread prior to the discovery of retroviruses, descriptions of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon were lacking. Papers from two decades ago revealed that HIV-1 could spread between cultured lymphocytes by cell-to-cell spread [4], proposed that this mechanism of dissemination was substantially more efficient than diffusion-limited spread of cell-free virions [5,6], and suggested that this might be a mechanism of evasion from antibody neutralization [4]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)

Review

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Open AccessReview Dendritic Cells and HIV-1 Trans-Infection
Viruses 2010, 2(8), 1704-1717; doi:10.3390/v2081704
Received: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 17 August 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendritic cells initiate and sustain immune responses by migrating to sites of pathogenic insult, transporting antigens to lymphoid tissues and signaling immune specific activation of T cells through the formation of the immunological synapse. Dendritic cells can also transfer intact, infectious HIV-1 to
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Dendritic cells initiate and sustain immune responses by migrating to sites of pathogenic insult, transporting antigens to lymphoid tissues and signaling immune specific activation of T cells through the formation of the immunological synapse. Dendritic cells can also transfer intact, infectious HIV-1 to CD4 T cells through an analogous structure, the infectious synapse. This replication independent mode of HIV-1 transmission, known as trans-infection, greatly increases T cell infection in vitro and is thought to contribute to viral dissemination in vivo. This review outlines the recent data defining the mechanisms of trans-infection and provides a context for the potential contribution of trans-infection in HIV-1 disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
Open AccessReview HIV-1 Virological Synapse: Live Imaging of Transmission
Viruses 2010, 2(8), 1666-1680; doi:10.3390/v2081666
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 11 August 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (311 KB)
Abstract
A relatively new aspect of HIV-1 biology is the ability of the virus to infect cells by direct cellular contacts across a specialized structure, the virological synapse. This process was recently described through live cell imaging. Together with the accumulated knowledge on cellular
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A relatively new aspect of HIV-1 biology is the ability of the virus to infect cells by direct cellular contacts across a specialized structure, the virological synapse. This process was recently described through live cell imaging. Together with the accumulated knowledge on cellular and molecular structures involved in cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1, the visualization of the virological synapse in video-microscopy has brought exciting new hypotheses on its underlying mechanisms. This review will recapitulate current knowledge with a particular emphasis on the questions live microscopy has raised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
Open AccessReview Macrophages and Cell-Cell Spread of HIV-1
Viruses 2010, 2(8), 1603-1620; doi:10.3390/v2081603
Received: 14 June 2010 / Revised: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macrophages have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and their resistance to virus-induced cytopathic effects allows them to serve as reservoirs for long-term infection. Thus, exploring the mechanisms of
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Macrophages have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and their resistance to virus-induced cytopathic effects allows them to serve as reservoirs for long-term infection. Thus, exploring the mechanisms of virus transmission from macrophages to target cells such as other macrophages or T lymphocytes is central to our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, and is vital to the development of vaccines and novel antiretroviral therapies. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of cell-cell transmission in macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
Open AccessReview The HTLV-1 Virological Synapse
Viruses 2010, 2(7), 1427-1447; doi:10.3390/v2071427
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 4 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) spreads efficiently between T-cells via a tight and highly organized cell-cell contact known as the virological synapse. It is now thought that many retroviruses and other viruses spread via a virological synapse, which may be defined as a virus-induced,
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Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) spreads efficiently between T-cells via a tight and highly organized cell-cell contact known as the virological synapse. It is now thought that many retroviruses and other viruses spread via a virological synapse, which may be defined as a virus-induced, specialized area of cell-to-cell contact that promotes the directed transmission of the virus between cells. We summarize here the mechanisms leading to the formation of the HTLV-1 virological synapse and the role played by HTLV-1 Tax protein. We propose a model of HTLV-1 transmission between T-cells based on the three-dimensional ultrastructure of the virological synapse. Finally, in the light of recent advances, we discuss the possible routes of HTLV-1 spread across the virological synapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
Open AccessReview Cell-to-Cell Spread of Retroviruses
Viruses 2010, 2(6), 1306-1321; doi:10.3390/v2061306
Received: 19 April 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 10 June 2010
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses from several families use direct cell-to-cell infection to disseminate between cells. Retroviruses are a relatively recent addition to this list, and appear to spread cell-to-cell by induction of multimolecular complexes termed virological synapses that assemble at the interface between infected and receptor-expressing
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Viruses from several families use direct cell-to-cell infection to disseminate between cells. Retroviruses are a relatively recent addition to this list, and appear to spread cell-to-cell by induction of multimolecular complexes termed virological synapses that assemble at the interface between infected and receptor-expressing target cells. Over the past five years, detailed insight into the cellular and molecular basis of virological synapse-mediated retroviral cell-to-cell spread has been obtained, but important questions and controversies have been raised that remain to be resolved. This review will focus on recent advances in the field with emphasis on areas in which work still needs to be done. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
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Open AccessReview T Cell Polarization at the Virological Synapse
Viruses 2010, 2(6), 1261-1278; doi:10.3390/v2061261
Received: 25 March 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 28 May 2010 / Published: 31 May 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 between CD4+ T cells takes place at multimolecular structures called virological synapses. A defining feature of the virological synapse is polarization of viral assembly and budding at sites of T cell-T cell contact. Recent work is beginning to
[...] Read more.
Cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 between CD4+ T cells takes place at multimolecular structures called virological synapses. A defining feature of the virological synapse is polarization of viral assembly and budding at sites of T cell-T cell contact. Recent work is beginning to address how viral proteins are targeted to the virological synapse and the molecular mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 egress by cell-to-cell spread. This review discusses our current understanding of these processes and considers how T cell polarization during other forms of intercellular communication may provide insight into HIV-1 assembly and dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
Open AccessReview HIV-1 Virological Synapse is not Simply a Copycat of the Immunological Synapse
Viruses 2010, 2(5), 1239-1260; doi:10.3390/v2051239
Received: 3 March 2010 / Revised: 5 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 May 2010 / Published: 21 May 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The virological synapse (VS) is a tight adhesive junction between an HIV-infected cell and an uninfected target cell, across which virus can be efficiently transferred from cell to cell in the absence of cell-cell fusion. The VS has been postulated to resemble, in
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The virological synapse (VS) is a tight adhesive junction between an HIV-infected cell and an uninfected target cell, across which virus can be efficiently transferred from cell to cell in the absence of cell-cell fusion. The VS has been postulated to resemble, in its morphology, the well-studied immunological synapse (IS). This review article discusses the structural similarities between IS and VS and the shared T cell receptor (TCR) signaling components that are found in the VS. However, the IS and the VS display distinct kinetics in disassembly and intracellular signaling events, possibly leading to different biological outcomes. Hence, HIV-1 exploits molecular components of IS and TCR signaling machinery to trigger unique changes in cellular morphology, migration, and activation that facilitate its transmission and cell-to-cell spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmission of Retroviruses across Virological Synapses)
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