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Special Issue "Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jiangyong Hu

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 65-65164540
Interests: water treatment processes; water quality assessment; storm water treatment
Guest Editor
Dr. Say-Leong Ong

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 65-65162890
Interests: water resource management; water reuse; bioprocesses for water and wastewater treatment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yuefeng Xie

Environmental Programs, The Pennsylvania State University, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA 17057, USA
E-Mail
Interests: Disinfection byproducts detection and control
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fang Lin

Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
E-Mail
Interests: Fate and behavior of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment process
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sungpyo Kim

Department of Environmental Engineering, Korea University, Sejong 339-700, Korea
E-Mail
Interests: Ecological and health impact of emerging contaminants in water

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging contaminants with known or unknown health effects, once produced, will find their own way to enter aquatic environments. Their fates and behaviors in water environments are still not fully understood and their associated risks have not been clearly known. Removal of emerging contaminants still remains a large challenge in today's water industry. As emerging contaminants issues have become increasingly important due to rapid population growth, industrialization, and so on, it would be of great importance to have a Special Issue to look into issues such as emerging contaminants occurrence, fate and transport, treatment and management. Therefore, we seek scientific findings and results in the abovementioned areas, which can contribute to new knowledge to water science and water engineering.

We would like to invite authors to submit original research and review articles focused on emerging contaminants.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Development in detection methods and devices
  • Fate and behavior in water environment
  • Micropollutant source control and management
  • Monitoring in water, air, soil and sludge
  • Emerging contaminants associated toxicity and risk assessment
  • Technologies and processes for control and removal of emerging contaminants

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging organic contaminants,
  • detection,
  • management,
  • control,
  • health impact

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Impact of Volcanic Eruptions on the Occurrence of PAHs Compounds in the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Southern Part of West Spitsbergen (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard)
Water 2017, 9(1), 42; doi:10.3390/w9010042
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 17 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 10 January 2017
PDF Full-text (9328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents changes in concentration levels of dioxin-like compounds that can be observed over the course of four study seasons in water samples collected from the Arctic watershed of Svalbard. The conducted analysis involved anthropogenic and natural factors that may affect the
[...] Read more.
The paper presents changes in concentration levels of dioxin-like compounds that can be observed over the course of four study seasons in water samples collected from the Arctic watershed of Svalbard. The conducted analysis involved anthropogenic and natural factors that may affect the concentration of PAHs in the study samples of water. An attempt is made to indicate the emission source of the compounds being deposited and to identify the extent to which the substances under analysis actually affect the Arctic ecosystems. Moreover, the work employs the following: diagnostic ratios PAHs, air masses backward trajectory analysis, Lidar observations and land relief analysis in order to provide a multi-level interpretation of the obtained data. Natural environment constitutes a complex system of subtle correlations that need to be perceived as a dynamic medium, in which multi-faceted processes take place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle Degradation of Acetaminophen and Its Transformation Products in Aqueous Solutions by Using an Electrochemical Oxidation Cell with Stainless Steel Electrodes
Water 2016, 8(9), 383; doi:10.3390/w8090383
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
PDF Full-text (3626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a novel electrochemical oxidation cell using stainless steel electrodes was found to be effective in oxidizing acetaminophen and its transformation products in short reaction times. Aqueous solutions of 10 mg/L-acetaminophen were prepared at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9. These
[...] Read more.
In this study, a novel electrochemical oxidation cell using stainless steel electrodes was found to be effective in oxidizing acetaminophen and its transformation products in short reaction times. Aqueous solutions of 10 mg/L-acetaminophen were prepared at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9. These solutions were electrochemically treated at direct current (DC) densities of 5.7 mA/cm2, 7.6 mA/cm2, and 9.5 mA/cm2. The pharmaceutical and its intermediates/oxidation products were determined by using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that electrochemical oxidation processes occurred in the cell. Acetaminophen degradation rate constants increased proportionally with the increase of current intensity. High current densities accelerated the degradation of acetaminophen; however, this effect diminished remarkably at pH values greater than 5. At pH 3 and 9.5 mA/cm2, the fastest degradation of acetaminophen and its intermediates/oxidation products was achieved. To minimize the wear down of the electrodes, a current density ramp is recommended, first applying 9.5 mA/cm2 during 2.5 min or 7.6 mA/cm2 during 7.5 min and then continuing the electrochemical oxidation process at 5.7 mA/cm2. This strategy will hasten the acetaminophen oxidation, extend the electrode’s life, and shorten the reaction time needed to degrade the pharmaceutical and its intermediates/oxidation products. DC densities up to 9.5 mA/cm2 can be supplied by photovoltaic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preliminary Study on the Removal of Steroidal Estrogens Using TiO2-Doped PVDF Ultrafiltration Membranes
Water 2016, 8(4), 134; doi:10.3390/w8040134
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steroidal estrogens are a representative type of endocrine-disrupting chemical contaminant that has been detected in surface water. In this paper, modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were prepared by adding different amounts of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and nano-TiO2 particles. PVDF-PVP membrane adsorption, UV
[...] Read more.
Steroidal estrogens are a representative type of endocrine-disrupting chemical contaminant that has been detected in surface water. In this paper, modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were prepared by adding different amounts of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and nano-TiO2 particles. PVDF-PVP membrane adsorption, UV photolysis and PVDF-PVP-TiO2 membrane photocatalysis performance were investigated by considering the rejection of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the cross-flow filtration experiments. The mechanism of photocatalytic degradation on TiO2-doped PVDF membranes was also evaluated. The results from the study indicated that adding PVP and nano-TiO2 appropriately in PVDF membranes could be an effective method for better E1and E2 rejection due to adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
Open AccessArticle Removal of Six Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) from Municipal Wastewater Using Aluminum Electrocoagulation
Water 2016, 8(4), 128; doi:10.3390/w8040128
Received: 9 January 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Conventional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processes are primarily designed to reduce the amount of organic matter, pathogens, and nutrients from the incoming influent. However, these processes are not as effective in reducing the concentrations of micropollutants, including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which notoriously evade
[...] Read more.
Conventional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processes are primarily designed to reduce the amount of organic matter, pathogens, and nutrients from the incoming influent. However, these processes are not as effective in reducing the concentrations of micropollutants, including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which notoriously evade traditional wastewater treatment technologies and are found even in tertiary-treated effluent. For WWTPs practicing deep-well injection or surface-water discharge, EDCs in the treated effluent are discharged into groundwater or the aquatic environment where humans and wildlife may potentially suffer the effects of chemical exposure. In the current laboratory-scale study, we tested a bench-top electrocoagulation (EC) unit utilizing aluminum blades for the removal of six estrogenic EDCs [estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol-A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP)]. Samples of municipal wastewater influent and tertiary-treated effluent were spiked with the six EDCs in order to test the removal efficiency of the EC unit. The mean concentration of each EDC component was statistically lower after EC treatment (removal range = 42%–98%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate aluminum electrocoagulation for removal of these specific EDCs, including nonylphenol (without the ethoxylate chain), as well as natural and synthetic estrogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Recent Advances in the Use of Chemical Markers for Tracing Wastewater Contamination in Aquatic Environment: A Review
Water 2017, 9(2), 143; doi:10.3390/w9020143
Received: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been increasing research focus on the detection and occurrence of wastewater contamination in aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants receive effluents containing various chemical pollutants. These chemicals may not be fully removed during treatment and could potentially enter the receiving water bodies.
[...] Read more.
There has been increasing research focus on the detection and occurrence of wastewater contamination in aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants receive effluents containing various chemical pollutants. These chemicals may not be fully removed during treatment and could potentially enter the receiving water bodies. Detection of these chemical pollutants and source identification could be a challenging research task due to the diversified chemical and functional groups, concentration levels and fate and transportation mechanisms of these pollutants in the environment. Chemical markers such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, artificial sweeteners, fluorescent whitening agents, sterols and stanols, and nitrate and nitrogen isotopics have been widely used by most research as markers. These markers served as indicators of wastewater contamination to the receiving bodies due to their frequent usage, resistance to biodegradability and, more importantly, anthropogenic origin. These markers are commonly used in combination to identify the contaminant source of different origins. This article discusses the main chemical markers that are used to identify wastewater contamination in receiving bodies, the current trends, and approach to select suitable chemical markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
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