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Special Issue "Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Terry Lucke

Stormwater Research Group (SWRG), School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Building H1.Room 2.48, QLD 4558 Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 7 5456 5185

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Permeable (or porous) pavements have been in commercial use now for around three decades globally, and they are often used as an alternative to conventional hard impervious surfaces, such as roads, car parks, footpaths, and pedestrian areas. They are generally implemented as part of an overall water management strategy, such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in Europe, Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia, or Low Impact Development (LID) in the USA. Permeable pavements have considerably different design objectives and requirements than conventional pavements. Their use can result in numerous stormwater management and environmental benefits including reducing peak runoff volumes and velocities from paved areas, reducing downstream pollution loads, improving infiltration and water table recharge and providing more potential stormwater harvesting and reuse options. While the use of permeable pavements has markedly increased in recent years, there are still some significant barriers to their more widespread adoption.  This Special Issue will focus on the role of permeable pavements in sustainable urban development. Potential research areas include:

  • design advances

  • infiltration performance improvements

  • maintenance issues

  • potential for water reuse

  • governance and regulatory issues

  • pollution removal and water quality improvement

  • stormwater management strategies and opportunities.

I would therefore like to call for original papers to disseminate and share research findings on the role of permeable pavements in sustainable urban development. Papers will be selected by a rigorous peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, development and application.

Assoc. Prof. Terry Lucke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Stormwater pollution

  • Infiltration performance

  • Water quality improvement

  • Maintenance options

  • Water reuse opportunities

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Hydraulic Performance of Lined Permeable Pavement Systems in the Built Environment
Water 2018, 10(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050587
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
The hydraulic performance of permeable pavement (PP) systems has been well demonstrated when based on full or partial on-site infiltration, while there is only limited research on lined PP systems built to provide detention and volume reduction by evaporation only. In this study,
[...] Read more.
The hydraulic performance of permeable pavement (PP) systems has been well demonstrated when based on full or partial on-site infiltration, while there is only limited research on lined PP systems built to provide detention and volume reduction by evaporation only. In this study, we tested the performance of commercially available PP components when constructed as lined PP systems with un-throttled discharge to explore basic hydraulic function in a real-life-setting. Four types of PP surface products and three types of sub-base aggregates were tested in six unique combinations, built as side-by-side parking lots into an existing parking area, each stall having a size of 25 m2 and 0.5 m of depth with individual lining. Based on 12 months of monitoring precipitation and discharge from each stall, total volume reduction ranged from 3% to 37%. Analysis of up to 22 single events, representing return periods of up to two years, revealed marked detention capacities, expressed as median volume reduction of 40%, spanning 27–69% and median lag time of 1:38 h, spanning 0:39–3:16 h, across all stalls. The considerable range in hydraulic properties can be ascribed to both surface and sub-base properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Long-Term Hydrological Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems in Northern Spain: An Approach to the “End-of-Life” Concept
Water 2018, 10(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040497
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 15 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Porous mixtures and Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements (ICBP) are the most widely used surfaces in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS). Despite the fact that there are many studies based on the hydrological performance of PPS, there are few long-term studies that identify the end
[...] Read more.
Porous mixtures and Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements (ICBP) are the most widely used surfaces in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS). Despite the fact that there are many studies based on the hydrological performance of PPS, there are few long-term studies that identify the end of life of PPS regarding their hydrological performance. A field study has been developed over 10 years in the experimental car park “Las Llamas” in the city of Santander, Northern Spain. Permeability was measured in 37 car park bays (nine Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete, nine Porous Asphalt, and 17 ICBP of two different designs). Tests were conducted under the Spanish Standard NLT-327/00 for the porous-mixture surfaces and the ASTM methods C1701/C1701M-17a and C1781/C1781M-15 for porous mixtures and ICBP, respectively. No maintenance was carried out in this car park since it was opened to traffic in 2008, allowing for the assessment and identification of the hydrological failure of each surface. The research showed that after 10 years of operation without maintenance, the bays constructed using porous mixtures were completely clogged, reaching the end of their operational life after nine years. However, ICBP maintained high infiltration rates, showing better resilience to sediment clogging. Further research is needed to confirm the evolution of ICBP surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Characterization of the Infiltration Capacity of Porous Concrete Pavements with Low Constant Head Permeability Tests
Water 2018, 10(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040480
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
Porous concrete (PC) has been extensively used as a surface layer in permeable pavements. The effectiveness of this material in managing stormwater runoff depends not only on subsurface storage, but on infiltration capacity during rainfall events. A variety of tests have been traditionally
[...] Read more.
Porous concrete (PC) has been extensively used as a surface layer in permeable pavements. The effectiveness of this material in managing stormwater runoff depends not only on subsurface storage, but on infiltration capacity during rainfall events. A variety of tests have been traditionally used for assessing their infiltration capacity, however, there is still uncertainty about whether these tests produce representative performance results under real conditions. This study aims to propose a methodology based on saturated and unsaturated low constant head (LCH) permeability tests, in order to characterize in detail the infiltration performance of PC materials during storm events and predict their infiltration behavior over time. To this end, three different infiltration tests were performed on PC specimens, both in newly built conditions and after being clogged. These experiments included unsaturated LCH, Laboratorio Caminos Santander (LCS) (one falling head permeameter) and saturated LCH tests. The results achieved were analyzed to describe the infiltration performance of the PC pavements tested. Finally, the correlation between the results obtained from on-site tests and laboratory scale devices was studied, providing the regression equations required to apply the infiltration models developed with easily measurable parameters. Consequently, the outputs of this research showed the suitability of the proposed methodology for assessing the infiltration behavior of PC pavements during storm events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Particle Size on Sediment Accumulation in Permeable Pavements
Water 2018, 10(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040403
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the sediment retention behaviour of laboratory-based permeable pavements using mono-sized sediments that were representative of the sizes typically found in urban stormwater. The sediments were applied in two cycles, namely in order of increasing and decreasing size. The results indicated
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the sediment retention behaviour of laboratory-based permeable pavements using mono-sized sediments that were representative of the sizes typically found in urban stormwater. The sediments were applied in two cycles, namely in order of increasing and decreasing size. The results indicated that most of the sediment accumulation could be attributed to the depth of the pavement and the material used in the joint and bedding aggregates. Most of the sediment was retained in the bedding and surface layers, and little difference to the retention was made by the incorporation of a basecourse layer. When the mono-sized sediments were added in decreasing size order with the coarsest sediments applied first, the overall rate of retention increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Open AccessArticle Determining Surface Infiltration Rate of Permeable Pavements with Digital Imaging
Water 2018, 10(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020133
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Cell phone images of pervious pavement surfaces were used to explore relationships between surface infiltration rates (SIR) measured using the ASTM C1701 standard test and using a simple falling head test. A fiber-reinforced porous asphalt surface and a highly permeable material comprised of
[...] Read more.
Cell phone images of pervious pavement surfaces were used to explore relationships between surface infiltration rates (SIR) measured using the ASTM C1701 standard test and using a simple falling head test. A fiber-reinforced porous asphalt surface and a highly permeable material comprised of stone, rubber and a polymer binder (Porous Pave) were tested. Images taken with a high-resolution cellphone camera were acquired as JPEG files and converted to gray scale images in Matlab® for analysis. The distribution of gray levels was compared to the surface infiltration rates obtained for both pavements with attention given to the mean of the distribution. Investigation into the relationships between mean SIR and parameters determined from the gray level distribution produced in the image analysis revealed that mean SIR measured in both pavements were proportional to the inverse of the mean of the distribution. The relationships produced a coefficient of determination over 85% using both the ASTM and the falling head test in the porous asphalt surface. SIR measurements determined with the ASTM method were highly correlated with the inverse mean of the distribution of gray levels in the Porous Pave material as well, producing coefficients of determination of over 90% and Kendall’s tau-b of roughly 70% for nonparametric data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Hydrologic and Water Quality Evaluation of a Permeable Pavement and Biofiltration Device in Series
Water 2018, 10(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010033
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two stormwater control measures (SCMs) installed in series were monitored for their individual impact on the hydrology and water quality of stormwater runoff from a 0.08-hectare watershed in Fayetteville, North Carolina, for 22 months. Runoff was first treated by permeable interlocking concrete pavement
[...] Read more.
Two stormwater control measures (SCMs) installed in series were monitored for their individual impact on the hydrology and water quality of stormwater runoff from a 0.08-hectare watershed in Fayetteville, North Carolina, for 22 months. Runoff was first treated by permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), the underdrain of which discharged into a proprietary box filter (Filterra® biofiltration) which combined high-flow-engineered media with modest biological treatment from a planted tree. Due to a deteriorating contributing drainage area and high ratio of impervious area to permeable pavement area (2.6:1), clogging of the permeable pavement surface caused an estimated 38% of stormwater to bypass as surface runoff. Fifty-six percent of runoff volume infiltrated underlying soils, and the remaining 6% exited the Filterra® as treated effluent; the hydrologic benefit of the Filterra® was minimal, as expected. Primary treatment through the PICP significantly reduced event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) but contributed to a significant increase in nitrate/nitrite (NO2,3–N) concentrations. Secondary treatment by the Filterra® further reduced TSS and TP concentrations and supplemented nitrogen removal such that treatment provided by the overall system was as follows: TSS (removal efficiency (RE): 96%), TP (RE: 75%), TN (RE: 42%), and TKN (RE: 51%). EMCs remained unchanged for NO2,3–N. Despite EMC reductions, additional load reduction due to the Filterra® was modest (less than 2%). This was because (1) a majority of pollutant load was removed via PICP exfiltration losses, and (2) nearly all of the export load was from untreated surface runoff, which bypassed the Filterra®, and therefore the manufactured device never had the opportunity to treat it. Cumulative load reductions (based only upon events with samples collected at each sampling location) were 69%, 60%, and 41% for TSS, TP, and TN, respectively. When surface runoff was excluded, load reductions increased to over 96%; lower run-on ratios (which would reduce clogging rate) and/or increased maintenance frequency might have improved pollutant load removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Permeable Pavement Clogging Investigations and Recommended Maintenance Regimes
Water 2018, 10(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030337
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding clogging mechanisms in permeable pavements can help optimize the required maintenance regime. In this review paper, methods for investigating clogging mechanisms are described. These include surface infiltration methods, the use of embedded sensors, and the development of modelling tools. Previously conducted surface
[...] Read more.
Understanding clogging mechanisms in permeable pavements can help optimize the required maintenance regime. In this review paper, methods for investigating clogging mechanisms are described. These include surface infiltration methods, the use of embedded sensors, and the development of modelling tools. Previously conducted surface infiltration tests indicate the importance of the age of a permeable pavement system and also local climatic conditions, including rainfall intensity. The results indicate that porous concrete generally has the highest infiltration capacity and this is followed by permeable interlocking concrete pavement and then porous asphalt. The measured infiltration rates decreased significantly even within two years of installation. There was an indirect relationship between surface infiltration rates and the age of the pavements. It was also found that the rainfall characteristics are important in selecting the type of pavement. Sensor technologies have been used mainly in the United States and there has been a reluctance to use such technologies in other parts of the world. Few studies have been conducted into modelling the changing performance of permeable pavement systems over time and there is a need to develop more general models. Various methods and machinery have been developed for cleaning and maintaining permeable pavements and there is no universally preferred approach currently available. Indeed, several of the commonly used maintenance methods have been shown to be relatively ineffective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Evaluation of the impact of seasonal variability and design on green infrastructure performance and modeling

Author: David G Chandler <dgchandl@syr.edu>

Affiliation: Associate Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University

Abstract: Increased adoption of green infrastructure practices for stormwater management demands attention to design related performance factors under a range of climate conditions. A comparative study of the performance for different green infrastructure installations was conducted in Syracuse New York. Runoff reduction was predominantly determined by season and type of green infrastructure. The ratio of green infrastructure area to contributing area and surface retention area to contributing area are found to be key design factors. The design of the inlet and texture of the granular media in the storage volume also affect total stormwater capture and rate of loss from storage. The empirical findings of discharge for various types of green infrastructure are not well represented by EPA Stormwater calculator (SWC) indicating the need for monitoring programs to support models of runoff reduction at individual sites.
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