Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010013

Authors: Jun Ye Wenhua Cui Zhikang Lu

In practical situations, we often have to handle programming problems involving indeterminate information. Building on the concepts of indeterminacy I and neutrosophic number (NN) (z = p + qI for p, q ∈ ℝ), this paper introduces some basic operations of NNs and concepts of NN nonlinear functions and inequalities. These functions and/or inequalities contain indeterminacy I and naturally lead to a formulation of NN nonlinear programming (NN-NP). These techniques include NN nonlinear optimization models for unconstrained and constrained problems and their general solution methods. Additionally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed NN-NP methods. It is obvious that the NN-NP problems usually yield NN optimal solutions, but not always. The possible optimal ranges of the decision variables and NN objective function are indicated when the indeterminacy I is considered for possible interval ranges in real situations.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010012

Authors: Kalyan Mondal Surapati Pramanik Bibhas C. Giri Florentin Smarandache

A neutrosophic number (a + bI) is a significant mathematical tool to deal with indeterminate and incomplete information which exists generally in real-world problems, where a and bI denote the determinate component and indeterminate component, respectively. We define score functions and accuracy functions for ranking neutrosophic numbers. We then define a cosine function to determine the unknown weight of the criteria. We define the neutrosophic number harmonic mean operators and prove their basic properties. Then, we develop two novel multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) strategies using the proposed aggregation operators. We solve a numerical example to demonstrate the feasibility, applicability, and effectiveness of the two proposed strategies. Sensitivity analysis with the variation of “I” on neutrosophic numbers is performed to demonstrate how the preference ranking order of alternatives is sensitive to the change of “I”. The efficiency of the developed strategies is ascertained by comparing the results obtained from the proposed strategies with the results obtained from the existing strategies in the literature.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010011

Authors: Gerardo Febres

When considering perceptions, the observation scale and resolution are closely related properties. There is consensus on considering resolution as the density of the elementary pieces of information in a specified information space. On the other hand, with the concept of scale, several conceptions compete for a consistent meaning. Scale is typically regarded as a way to indicate the degree of detail in which an observation is performed. Surprisingly, there is not a unified definition of scale as a description’s property. This paper offers a precise definition of scale and a method to quantify it as a property associated with the interpretation of a description. To complete the parameters needed to describe the perception of a description, the concepts of scope and resolution are also revealed with an exact meaning. A model describing a recursive process of interpretation, based on evolving steps of scale, scope and resolution, is introduced. The model relies on the conception of observation scale and its association to the selection of symbols. Five experiments illustrate the application of these concepts, showing that resolution, scale and scope integrate the set of properties to define any point of view from which an observation is performed and interpreted. The results obtained for descriptions expressed in one and two dimensions, are the basis for a comparison of the perceivable symbolic information from different interpretations of the same descriptions. In conclusion, this study provides a framework for building models of our interpretation process and suggests ways to understand some mechanisms in the formation of information from initially meaningless symbols.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010010

Authors: Jun Jiang Yuqiang Feng Shougui Li

In this paper, the solvability of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) with mixed partial derivatives is considered. The invariant subspace method is generalized and is then used to derive exact solutions to the nonlinear FPDEs. Some examples are solved to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the method.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010009

Authors: Carlton-James Osakwe

In this paper, we examine the real options approach to capital budgeting decision making in the presence of managerial adverse incentives. We show that real options have the potential to be value enhancing or value destroying depending on the managerial incentives that may result from having objectives different from firm value maximization. We further examine the possibility of using a generic residual income based rule of managerial compensation to induce the proper investment incentives and we seek to determine the cost-of-capital that must be employed in such a rule. Using numerical examples it is demonstrated that in general, a range of incentive compatible costs-of-capital exists across all managerial investment horizons but not across all managerial hurdle rates.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010008

Authors: Christian Servin Gerardo Muela Vladik Kreinovich

In modern mathematics, many concepts and ideas are described in terms of category theory. From this viewpoint, it is desirable to analyze what can be determined if, instead of the basic category of sets, we consider a similar category of fuzzy sets. In this paper, we describe a natural fuzzy analog of the category of sets and functions, and we show that, in this category, fuzzy relations (a natural fuzzy analogue of functions) can be determined in category terms—of course, modulo 1-1 mapping of the corresponding universe of discourse and 1-1 re-scaling of fuzzy degrees.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010007

Authors: Young Jun Seok-Zun Song Seon Kim

As a new extension of a cubic set, the notion of a cubic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced, and its application in B C K / B C I -algebra is considered. The notions of α -internal, β -internal, α -external and β -external cubic IVIF set are introduced, and the P-union, P-intersection, R-union and R-intersection of α -internal and α -external cubic IVIF sets are discussed. The concepts of cubic IVIF subalgebra and ideal in B C K / B C I -algebra are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between cubic IVIF subalgebra and cubic IVIF ideal are considered, and characterizations of cubic IVIF subalgebra and cubic IVIF ideal are discussed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010006

Authors: Tahsin Oner Tugce Katican

In this work, we introduce Wajsberg algebras which are equivalent structures to MV-algebras in their implicational version, and then we define new notions and give new solutions to the set-theoretical Yang-Baxter equation by using Wajsberg algebras.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010005

Authors: Sidra Sayed Nabeela Ishfaq Muhammad Akram Florentin Smarandache

A rough neutrosophic set model is a hybrid model which deals with vagueness by using the lower and upper approximation spaces. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough neutrosophic sets to graphs. We introduce rough neutrosophic digraphs and describe methods of their construction. Moreover, we present the concept of self complementary rough neutrosophic digraphs. Finally, we consider an application of rough neutrosophic digraphs in decision-making.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010004

Authors: Teresa González-Arteaga Rocio de Andrés Calle Luis Martínez

The need for organizations to evaluate their environmental practices has been recently increasing. This fact has led to the development of many approaches to appraise such practices. In this paper, a novel decision model to evaluate company’s environmental practices is proposed to improve traditional evaluation process in different facets. Firstly, different reviewers’ collectives related to the company’s activity are taken into account in the process to increase company internal efficiency and external legitimacy. Secondly, following the standard ISO 14031, two general categories of environmental performance indicators, management and operational, are considered. Thirdly, since the assumption of independence among environmental indicators is rarely verified in environmental context, an aggregation operator to bear in mind the relationship among such indicators in the evaluation results is proposed. Finally, this new model integrates quantitative and qualitative information with different scales using a multi-granular linguistic model that allows to adapt diverse evaluation scales according to appraisers’ knowledge.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010003

Authors: Young Jun Florentin Smarandache Seok-Zun Song Madad Khan

The notion of a neutrosophic positive implicative N -ideal in B C K -algebras is introduced, and several properties are investigated. Relations between a neutrosophic N -ideal and a neutrosophic positive implicative N -ideal are discussed. Characterizations of a neutrosophic positive implicative N -ideal are considered. Conditions for a neutrosophic N -ideal to be a neutrosophic positive implicative N -ideal are provided. An extension property of a neutrosophic positive implicative N -ideal based on the negative indeterminacy membership function is discussed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010002

Authors: Axioms Editorial Office

Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Axioms maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...]

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms7010001

Authors: Nor Jaini Sergey Utyuzhnikov

The aim of this paper is to present a trade-off ranking method in a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making environment. The triangular fuzzy numbers are used to represent the imprecise numerical quantities in the criteria values of each alternative and the weight of each criterion. A fuzzy trade-off ranking method is developed to rank alternatives in the fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making problem with conflicting criteria. The trade-off ranking method tackles this type of multi-criteria problems by giving the least compromise solution as the best option. The proposed method for the fuzzy decision-making problems is compared against two other fuzzy decision-making approaches, fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and fuzzy VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje (VIKOR), used for ranking alternatives.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040035

Authors: Ümit Budak Yanhui Guo Abdulkadir Şengür Florentin Smarandache

Hough transform (HT) is a useful tool for both pattern recognition and image processing communities. In the view of pattern recognition, it can extract unique features for description of various shapes, such as lines, circles, ellipses, and etc. In the view of image processing, a dozen of applications can be handled with HT, such as lane detection for autonomous cars, blood cell detection in microscope images, and so on. As HT is a straight forward shape detector in a given image, its shape detection ability is low in noisy images. To alleviate its weakness on noisy images and improve its shape detection performance, in this paper, we proposed neutrosophic Hough transform (NHT). As it was proved earlier, neutrosophy theory based image processing applications were successful in noisy environments. To this end, the Hough space is initially transferred into the NS domain by calculating the NS membership triples (T, I, and F). An indeterminacy filtering is constructed where the neighborhood information is used in order to remove the indeterminacy in the spatial neighborhood of neutrosophic Hough space. The potential peaks are detected based on thresholding on the neutrosophic Hough space, and these peak locations are then used to detect the lines in the image domain. Extensive experiments on noisy and noise-free images are performed in order to show the efficiency of the proposed NHT algorithm. We also compared our proposed NHT with traditional HT and fuzzy HT methods on variety of images. The obtained results showed the efficiency of the proposed NHT on noisy images.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040034

Authors: Juan-José Miñana Oscar Valero

The notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by Trillas, E. in 1982, with the aim of fuzzifying the crisp notion of equivalence relation. Such operators allow for measuring the similarity between objects when there is a limitation on the accuracy of the performed measurement or a certain degree of similarity can be only determined between the objects being compared. Since Trillas introduced such kind of operators, many authors have studied their properties and applications. In particular, an intensive research line is focused on the metric behavior of indistinguishability operators. Specifically, the existence of a duality between metrics and indistinguishability operators has been explored. In this direction, a technique to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators, and vice versa, has been developed by several authors in the literature. Nowadays, such a measurement of similarity is provided by the so-called fuzzy metrics when the degree of similarity between objects is measured relative to a parameter. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the notion of indistinguishability operator in such a way that the measurements of similarity are relative to a parameter and, thus, classical indistinguishability operators and fuzzy metrics can be retrieved as a particular case. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the new operators and metrics. Concretely, we prove the existence of a duality between them and the so-called modular metrics, which provide a dissimilarity measurement between objects relative to a parameter. The new duality relationship allows us, on the one hand, to introduce a technique for generating the new indistinguishability operators from modular metrics and vice versa and, on the other hand, to derive, as a consequence, a technique for generating fuzzy metrics from modular metrics and vice versa. Furthermore, we yield examples that illustrate the new results.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040033

Authors: Vsevolod Gubarev

Universal enveloping commutative Rota–Baxter algebras of pre- and post-commutative algebras are constructed. The pair of varieties (RBλCom, postCom) is proved to be a Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt-pair (PBW)-pair and the pair (RBCom, preCom) is proven not to be.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040032

Authors: Simon Lentner Andreas Lochmann

A ubiquitous observation for finite-dimensional Nichols algebras is that as a graded algebra the Hilbert series factorizes into cyclotomic polynomials. For Nichols algebras of diagonal type (e.g., Borel parts of quantum groups), this is a consequence of the existence of a root system and a Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) basis basis, but, for nondiagonal examples (e.g., Fomin–Kirillov algebras), this is an ongoing surprise. In this article, we discuss this phenomenon and observe that it continues to hold for the graded character of the involved group and for automorphisms. First, we discuss thoroughly the diagonal case. Then, we prove factorization for a large class of nondiagonal Nichols algebras obtained by the folding construction. We conclude empirically by listing all remaining examples, which were in size accessible to the computer algebra system GAP and find that again all graded characters factorize.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040030

Authors: Jin Liang Yunyi Mu

In this paper, we present new existence theorems of mild solutions to Cauchy problem for some fractional differential equations with delay. Our main tools to obtain our results are the theory of analytic semigroups and compact semigroups, the Kuratowski measure of non-compactness, and fixed point theorems, with the help of some estimations. Examples are also given to illustrate the applicability of our results.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040031

Authors: Mehmet Şahin Rızvan Erol

This study proposes a mathematical model of dynamic pricing for soccer game tickets. The logic behind the dynamic ticket pricing model is price change based on multipliers which reflect the effects of time and inventory. Functions are formed for the time and inventory multipliers. The optimization algorithm attempts to find optimal values of these multipliers in order to maximize revenue. By multiplying the mean season ticket price (used as the reference price) by the multipliers, dynamic ticket prices are obtained. Demand rates at different prices are needed for the model, and they are provided by a unique fuzzy logic model. The results of this model are compared with real data to test the model’s effectiveness. According to the results of the dynamic pricing model, the total revenue generated is increased by 8.95% and 0.76% compared with the static pricing strategy in the first and second cases, respectively. The results of the fuzzy logic model are also found to be competitive and effective. This is the first time a fuzzy logic model has been designed to forecast the attendance of soccer games. It is also the first time this type of mathematical model of dynamic pricing for soccer game tickets has been designed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040029

Authors: Paolo Bevilacqua Gianni Bosi Magalì Zuanon

Looking at decisiveness as crucial, we discuss the existence of an order-preserving function for the nontotal crisp preference relation naturally associated to a nontotal fuzzy preference relation. We further present conditions for the existence of an upper semicontinuous order-preserving function for a fuzzy binary relation on a crisp topological space.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040028

Authors: Ol’ga Sipacheva

Various notions of large sets in groups, including the classical notions of thick, syndetic, and piecewise syndetic sets and the new notion of vast sets in groups, are studied with emphasis on the interplay between such sets in Boolean groups. Natural topologies closely related to vast sets are considered; as a byproduct, interesting relations between vast sets and ultrafilters are revealed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6040027

Authors: George Willis

The scale of an endomorphism of a totally disconnected, locally compact group G is defined and an example is presented which shows that the scale function is not always continuous with respect to the Braconnier topology on the automorphism group of G. Methods for computing the scale, which is a positive integer, are surveyed and illustrated by applying them in diverse cases, including when G is compact; an automorphism group of a tree; Neretin’s group of almost automorphisms of a tree; and a p-adic Lie group. The information required to compute the scale is reviewed from the perspective of the, as yet incomplete, general theory of totally disconnected, locally compact groups.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030026

Authors: Eli Appleboim

This paper gives a study of a two dimensional version of the theory of normal surfaces; namely, a study o normal curves and their relations with respect to geodesic curves. This study results with a nice discrete approximation of geodesics embedded in a triangulated orientable Riemannian surface. Experimental results of the two dimensional case are given as well.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030025

Authors: Leire Legarreta Inmaculada Lizasoain Iraide Mardones-Pérez

Aggregation functions are mathematical operators that merge given data in order to obtain a global value that preserves the information given by the data as much as possible. In most practical applications, this value is expected to be between the infimum and the supremum of the given data, which is guaranteed only when the aggregation functions are idempotent. Ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators are particular cases of this kind of function, with the particularity that the obtained global value depends on neither the source nor the expert that provides each datum, but only on the set of values. They have been classified by means of the orness—a measurement of the proximity of an OWA operator to the OR-operator. In this paper, the concept of orness is extended to the framework of idempotent aggregation functions defined both on the real unit interval and on a complete lattice with a local finiteness condition.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030024

Authors: Paul Alsing Howard Blair Matthew Corne Gordon Jones Warner Miller Konstantin Mischaikow Vidit Nanda

We implement methods from computational homology to obtain a topological signal of singularity formation in a selection of geometries evolved numerically by Ricci flow. Our approach, based on persistent homology, produces precise, quantitative measures describing the behavior of an entire collection of data across a discrete sample of times. We analyze the topological signals of geometric criticality obtained numerically from the application of persistent homology to models manifesting singularities under Ricci flow. The results we obtain for these numerical models suggest that the topological signals distinguish global singularity formation (collapse to a round point) from local singularity formation (neckpinch). Finally, we discuss the interpretation and implication of these results and future applications.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030023

Authors: Taras Banakh

Let C → be a category whose objects are semigroups with topology and morphisms are closed semigroup relations, in particular, continuous homomorphisms. An object X of the category C → is called C → -closed if for each morphism Φ ⊂ X × Y in the category C → the image Φ ( X ) = { y ∈ Y : ∃ x ∈ X ( x , y ) ∈ Φ } is closed in Y. In the paper we survey existing and new results on topological groups, which are C → -closed for various categories C → of topologized semigroups.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030022

Authors: Pablo Hernández Susana Cubillo Carmen Torres-Blanc José Guerrero

Since Lotfi A. Zadeh introduced the concept of fuzzy sets in 1965, many authors have devoted their efforts to the study of these new sets, both from a theoretical and applied point of view. Fuzzy sets were later extended in order to get more adequate and flexible models of inference processes, where uncertainty, imprecision or vagueness is present. Type 2 fuzzy sets comprise one of such extensions. In this paper, we introduce and study an extension of the fuzzy numbers (type 1), the type 2 generalized fuzzy numbers and type 2 fuzzy numbers. Moreover, we also define a partial order on these sets, which extends into these sets the usual order on real numbers, which undoubtedly becomes a new option to be taken into account in the existing total preorders for ranking interval type 2 fuzzy numbers, which are a subset of type 2 generalized fuzzy numbers.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030021

Authors: Christopher Fuchs Michael Hoang Blake Stacey

Recent years have seen significant advances in the study of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) quantum measurements, also known as maximal sets of complex equiangular lines. Previously, the published record contained solutions up to dimension 67, and was with high confidence complete up through dimension 50. Computer calculations have now furnished solutions in all dimensions up to 151, and in several cases beyond that, as large as dimension 844. These new solutions exhibit an additional type of symmetry beyond the basic definition of a SIC, and so verify a conjecture of Zauner in many new cases. The solutions in dimensions 68 through 121 were obtained by Andrew Scott, and his catalogue of distinct solutions is, with high confidence, complete up to dimension 90. Additional results in dimensions 122 through 151 were calculated by the authors using Scott’s code. We recap the history of the problem, outline how the numerical searches were done, and pose some conjectures on how the search technique could be improved. In order to facilitate communication across disciplinary boundaries, we also present a comprehensive bibliography of SIC research.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030019

Authors: María Campión Edurne Falcó José García-Lapresta Esteban Induráin

In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030020

Authors: Xiaosheng Zhuang

In this paper, we generalize the family of Deslauriers–Dubuc’s interpolatory masks from dimension one to arbitrary dimensions with respect to the quincunx dilation matrices, thereby providing a family of quincunx fundamental refinable functions in arbitrary dimensions. We show that a family of unique quincunx interpolatory masks exists and such a family of masks is of real value and has the full-axis symmetry property. In dimension d = 2 , we give the explicit form of such unique quincunx interpolatory masks, which implies the nonnegativity property of such a family of masks.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030018

Authors: Ram Saxena Rakesh Parmar

We aim to present some formulas for the Saigo hypergeometric fractional integral and differential operators involving the generalized Mathieu series S μ ( r ) , which are expressed in terms of the Hadamard product of the generalized Mathieu series S μ ( r ) and the Fox–Wright function p Ψ q ( z ) . Corresponding assertions for the classical Riemann–Liouville and Erdélyi–Kober fractional integral and differential operators are deduced. Further, it is emphasized that the results presented here, which are for a seemingly complicated series, can reveal their involved properties via the series of the two known functions.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6030017

Authors: Tahsin Oner Ibrahim Senturk Gulsah Oner

The aim of this paper is to give a new equivalent set of axioms for MV-algebras, and to show that the axioms are independent. In addition to this, we handle Yang–Baxter equation problem. In conclusion, we construct a new set-theoretical solution for the Yang–Baxter equation by using MV-algebras.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020016

Authors: Kai Liu YangQuan Chen Xi Zhang

Strong coupling between values at different times that exhibit properties of long range dependence, non-stationary, spiky signals cannot be processed by the conventional time series analysis. The autoregressive fractional integral moving average (ARFIMA) model, a fractional order signal processing technique, is the generalization of the conventional integer order models—autoregressive integral moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. Therefore, it has much wider applications since it could capture both short-range dependence and long range dependence. For now, several software programs have been developed to deal with ARFIMA processes. However, it is unfortunate to see that using different numerical tools for time series analysis usually gives quite different and sometimes radically different results. Users are often puzzled about which tool is suitable for a specific application. We performed a comprehensive survey and evaluation of available ARFIMA tools in the literature in the hope of benefiting researchers with different academic backgrounds. In this paper, four aspects of ARFIMA programs concerning simulation, fractional order difference filter, estimation and forecast are compared and evaluated, respectively, in various software platforms. Our informative comments can serve as useful selection guidelines.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020015

Authors: Miao Jin Su Xia Hongyi Wu Xianfeng Gu

This work proposes a novel connectivity-based localization algorithm, well suitable for large-scale sensor networks with complex shapes and a non-uniform nodal distribution. In contrast to current state-of-the-art connectivity-based localization methods, the proposed algorithm is highly scalable with linear computation and communication costs with respect to the size of the network; and fully distributed where each node only needs the information of its neighbors without cumbersome partitioning and merging process. The algorithm is theoretically guaranteed and numerically stable. Moreover, the algorithm can be readily extended to the localization of networks with a one-hop transmission range distance measurement, and the propagation of the measurement error at one sensor node is limited within a small area of the network around the node. Extensive simulations and comparison with other methods under various representative network settings are carried out, showing the superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020014

Authors: Sonja Jäckle Karsten Keller

The Tsallis entropy given for a positive parameter α can be considered as a generalization of the classical Shannon entropy. For the latter, corresponding to α = 1 , there exist many axiomatic characterizations. One of them based on the well-known Khinchin-Shannon axioms has been simplified several times and adapted to Tsallis entropy, where the axiom of (generalized) Shannon additivity is playing a central role. The main aim of this paper is to discuss this axiom in the context of Tsallis entropy. We show that it is sufficient for characterizing Tsallis entropy, with the exceptions of cases α = 1 , 2 discussed separately.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020013

Authors: Gianluca Paolini Saharon Shelah

We prove that if G is a Polish group and A a group admitting a system of generators whose associated length function satisfies: (i) if 0 &lt; k &lt; ω , then l g ( x ) ≤ l g ( x k ) ; (ii) if l g ( y ) &lt; k &lt; ω and x k = y , then x = e , then there exists a subgroup G * of G of size b (the bounding number) such that G * is not embeddable in A. In particular, we prove that the automorphism group of a countable structure cannot be an uncountable right-angled Artin group. This generalizes analogous results for free and free abelian uncountable groups.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020012

Authors: Zengqiang Chen Matthias Dehmer Frank Emmert-Streib Abbe Mowshowitz Yongtang Shi

In this exploratory paper, we discuss quantitative graph-theoretical measures of network aesthetics. Related work in this area has typically focused on geometrical features (e.g., line crossings or edge bendiness) of drawings or visual representations of graphs which purportedly affect an observer’s perception. Here we take a very different approach, abandoning reliance on geometrical properties, and apply information-theoretic measures to abstract graphs and networks directly (rather than to their visual representaions) as a means of capturing classical appreciation of structural symmetry. Examples are used solely to motivate the approach to measurement, and to elucidate our symmetry-based mathematical theory of network aesthetics.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020010

Authors: Evgenii Proutorov Hiroshi Koibuchi

We study triangulated surface models with nontrivial surface metrices for membranes. The surface model is defined by a mapping r from a two-dimensional parameter space M to the three-dimensional Euclidean space R 3 . The metric variable g a b , which is always fixed to the Euclidean metric δ a b , can be extended to a more general non-Euclidean metric on M in the continuous model. The problem we focus on in this paper is whether such an extension is well defined or not in the discrete model. We find that a discrete surface model with a nontrivial metric becomes well defined if it is treated in the context of Finsler geometry (FG) modeling, where triangle edge length in M depends on the direction. It is also shown that the discrete FG model is orientation asymmetric on invertible surfaces in general, and for this reason, the FG model has a potential advantage for describing real physical membranes, which are expected to have some asymmetries for orientation-changing transformations.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020011

Authors: Dhannya Joseph

In this paper, I consider multivariate analogues of the extended gamma density, which will provide multivariate extensions to Tsallis statistics and superstatistics. By making use of the pathway parameter β , multivariate generalized gamma density can be obtained from the model considered here. Some of its special cases and limiting cases are also mentioned. Conditional density, best predictor function, regression theory, etc., connected with this model are also introduced.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020009

Authors: Jianzhong Wang

For a given pair of s-dimensional real Laurent polynomials ( a → ( z ) , b → ( z ) ) , which has a certain type of symmetry and satisfies the dual condition b → ( z ) T a → ( z ) = 1 , an s × s Laurent polynomial matrix A ( z ) (together with its inverse A - 1 ( z ) ) is called a symmetric Laurent polynomial matrix extension of the dual pair ( a → ( z ) , b → ( z ) ) if A ( z ) has similar symmetry, the inverse A - 1 ( Z ) also is a Laurent polynomial matrix, the first column of A ( z ) is a → ( z ) and the first row of A - 1 ( z ) is ( b → ( z ) ) T . In this paper, we introduce the Euclidean symmetric division and the symmetric elementary matrices in the Laurent polynomial ring and reveal their relation. Based on the Euclidean symmetric division algorithm in the Laurent polynomial ring, we develop a novel and effective algorithm for symmetric Laurent polynomial matrix extension. We also apply the algorithm in the construction of multi-band symmetric perfect reconstruction filter banks.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020008

Authors: David Galas Gregory Dewey James Kunert-Graf Nikita Sakhanenko

Inferring and comparing complex, multivariable probability density functions is fundamental to problems in several fields, including probabilistic learning, network theory, and data analysis. Classification and prediction are the two faces of this class of problem. This study takes an approach that simplifies many aspects of these problems by presenting a structured, series expansion of the Kullback-Leibler divergence—a function central to information theory—and devise a distance metric based on this divergence. Using the Möbius inversion duality between multivariable entropies and multivariable interaction information, we express the divergence as an additive series in the number of interacting variables, which provides a restricted and simplified set of distributions to use as approximation and with which to model data. Truncations of this series yield approximations based on the number of interacting variables. The first few terms of the expansion-truncation are illustrated and shown to lead naturally to familiar approximations, including the well-known Kirkwood superposition approximation. Truncation can also induce a simple relation between the multi-information and the interaction information. A measure of distance between distributions, based on Kullback-Leibler divergence, is then described and shown to be a true metric if properly restricted. The expansion is shown to generate a hierarchy of metrics and connects this work to information geometry formalisms. An example of the application of these metrics to a graph comparison problem is given that shows that the formalism can be applied to a wide range of network problems and provides a general approach for systematic approximations in numbers of interactions or connections, as well as a related quantitative metric.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6020007

Authors: John Herr Eric Weber

Using the Kaczmarz algorithm, we prove that for any singular Borel probability measure μ on [ 0 , 1 ) , every f ∈ L 2 ( μ ) possesses a Fourier series of the form f ( x ) = ∑ n = 0 ∞ c n e 2 π i n x . We show that the coefficients c n can be computed in terms of the quantities f ^ ( n ) = ∫ 0 1 f ( x ) e − 2 π i n x d μ ( x ) . We also demonstrate a Shannon-type sampling theorem for functions that are in a sense μ -bandlimited.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6010006

Authors: Peter Casazza Dorsa Ghoreishi Shani Jose Janet Tremain

We make a detailed study of norm retrieval. We give several classification theorems for norm retrieval and give a large number of examples to go with the theory. One consequence is a new result about Parseval frames: If a Parseval frame is divided into two subsets with spans W 1 , W 2 and W 1 ∩ W 2 = { 0 } , then W 1 ⊥ W 2 .

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6010005

Authors: Dagmar Markechová

The main aim of this contribution is to define the notions of Kullback-Leibler divergence and conditional mutual information in fuzzy probability spaces and to derive the basic properties of the suggested measures. In particular, chain rules for mutual information of fuzzy partitions and for Kullback-Leibler divergence with respect to fuzzy P-measures are established. In addition, a convexity of Kullback-Leibler divergence and mutual information with respect to fuzzy P-measures is studied.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6010004

Authors: Dana Černá Václav Finĕk

We propose a construction of a Hermite cubic spline-wavelet basis on the interval and hypercube. The basis is adapted to homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. The wavelets are orthogonal to piecewise polynomials of degree at most seven on a uniform grid. Therefore, the wavelets have eight vanishing moments, and the matrices arising from discretization of differential equations with coefﬁcients that are piecewise polynomials of degree at most four on uniform grids are sparse. Numerical examples demonstrate the efﬁciency of an adaptive wavelet method with the constructed wavelet basis for solving the one-dimensional elliptic equation and the two-dimensional Black–Scholes equation with a quadratic volatility.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6010003

Authors: M. Khokulan K. Thirulogasanthar S. Srisatkunarajah

An introductory theory of frames on finite dimensional left quaternion Hilbert spaces is demonstrated along the lines of their complex counterpart.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6010002

Authors: Axioms Editorial Office

The editors of Axioms would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...]

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms6010001

Authors: Dan Kučerovský

The classical Cuntz semigroup has an important role in the study of C*-algebras, being one of the main invariants used to classify recalcitrant C*-algebras up to isomorphism. We consider C*-algebras that have Hopf algebra structure, and find additional structure in their Cuntz semigroups. We show that in many cases, isomorphisms of Cuntz semigroups that respect this additional structure can be lifted to Hopf algebra (bi)isomorphisms, up to a possible flip of the co-product. This shows that the Cuntz semigroup provides an interesting invariant of C*-algebraic quantum groups.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5040029

Authors: Konstantin Zhukovsky Hari Srivastava

A method for the solution of linear differential equations (DE) of non-integer order and of partial differential equations (PDE) by means of inverse differential operators is proposed. The solutions of non-integer order ordinary differential equations are obtained with recourse to the integral transforms and the exponent operators. The generalized forms of Laguerre and Hermite orthogonal polynomials as members of more general Appèl polynomial family are used to find the solutions. Operational definitions of these polynomials are used in the context of the operational approach. Special functions are employed to write solutions of DE in convolution form. Some linear partial differential equations (PDE) are also explored by the operational method. The Schrödinger and the Black–Scholes-like evolution equations and solved with the help of the operational technique. Examples of the solution of DE of non-integer order and of PDE are considered with various initial functions, such as polynomial, exponential, and their combinations.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5040028

Authors: Konstantin Zhukovsky

We studied physical problems related to heat transport and the corresponding differential equations, which describe a wider range of physical processes. The operational method was employed to construct particular solutions for them. Inverse differential operators and operational exponent as well as operational definitions and operational rules for generalized orthogonal polynomials were used together with integral transforms and special functions. Examples of an electric charge in a constant electric field passing under a potential barrier and of heat diffusion were compared and explored in two dimensions. Non-Fourier heat propagation models were studied and compared with each other and with Fourier heat transfer. Exact analytical solutions for the hyperbolic heat equation and for its extensions were explored. The exact analytical solution for the Guyer-Krumhansl type heat equation was derived. Using the latter, the heat surge propagation and relaxation was studied for the Guyer-Krumhansl heat transport model, for the Cattaneo and for the Fourier models. The comparison between them was drawn. Space-time propagation of a power–exponential function and of a periodic signal, obeying the Fourier law, the hyperbolic heat equation and its extended Guyer-Krumhansl form were studied by the operational technique. The role of various terms in the equations was explored and their influence on the solutions demonstrated. The accordance of the solutions with maximum principle is discussed. The application of our theoretical study for heat propagation in thin films is considered. The examples of the relaxation of the initial laser flash, the wide heat spot, and the harmonic function are considered and solved analytically.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5040027

Authors: David Gu Emil Saucan

Science does not necessarily evolve along the lines that are taught to us in High School history classes and in popular films, that is, from simple to complex.[...]

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5040026

Authors: Melanie Weber Jürgen Jost Emil Saucan

We present a viable geometric solution for the detection of dynamic effects in complex networks. Building on Forman’s discretization of the classical notion of Ricci curvature, we introduce a novel geometric method to characterize different types of real-world networks with an emphasis on peer-to-peer networks. We study the classical Ricci-flow in a network-theoretic setting and introduce an analytic tool for characterizing dynamic effects. The formalism suggests a computational method for change detection and the identification of fast evolving network regions and yields insights into topological properties and the structure of the underlying data.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5040025

Authors: Jonathan Smith

Quantum quasigroups are algebraic structures providing a general self-dual framework for the nonassociative extension of Hopf algebra techniques. They also have one-sided analogues, which are not self-dual. The paper presents a survey of recent work on these structures, showing how they furnish various solutions to the quantum Yang–Baxter equation.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5030023

Authors: Marcin Łyczak Marek Porwolik Kordula Świętorzecka

Stanisław Leśniewski’s mereology was originally conceived as a theory of foundations of mathematics and it is also for this reason that it has philosophical connotations. The ‘philosophical significance’ of mereology was upheld by Bolesław Sobociński who expressed the view in his correspondence with J.M. Bocheński. As he wrote to Bocheński in 1948: “[...] it is interesting that, being such a simple deductive theory, mereology may prove a number of very general theses reminiscent of metaphysical ontology”. The theses which Sobociński had in mind were related to the mereological notion of “the Universe”. Sobociński listed them in the letter adding his philosophical commentary but he did not give proofs for them and did not specify precisely the theory lying behind them. This is what we want to supply in the first part of our paper. We indicate some connections between the notion of the universe and other specific mereological notions. Motivated by Sobociński’s informal suggestions showing his preference for mereology over the axiomatic set theory in application to philosophy we propose to consider Sobociński’s formalism in a new frame which is the ZFM theory—an extension of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory by mereological axioms, developed by A. Pietruszczak. In this systematic part we investigate reasons of ’philosophical hopes’ mentioned by Sobociński, pinned on the mereological concept of “the Universe”.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5030024

Authors: Shanoja Naik Hans Haubold

Motivated by statistical mechanics contexts, we study the properties of the q-Laplace transform, which is an extension of the well-known Laplace transform. In many circumstances, the kernel function to evaluate certain integral forms has been studied. In this article, we establish relationships between q-exponential and other well-known functional forms, such as Mittag–Leffler functions, hypergeometric and H-function, by means of the kernel function of the integral. Traditionally, we have been applying the Laplace transform method to solve differential equations and boundary value problems. Here, we propose an alternative, the q-Laplace transform method, to solve differential equations, such as as the fractional space-time diffusion equation, the generalized kinetic equation and the time fractional heat equation.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5030022

Authors: José González Campos Ronald Manríquez Peñafiel

Methods for ordering fuzzy numbers play an important role as decision criteria, with applications in areas such as optimization and data mining, among others. Although there are several proposals for ordering methods in the fuzzy literature, many of them are difficult to apply and present some problems with ranking computation. For that reason, this work proposes an ordering method for fuzzy numbers based on a simple application of a polynomial function. We study some properties of our new method, comparing our results with those generated by other methods previously discussed in literature.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5030021

Authors: Robert Kublikowski

The concept of a real definition worked out by Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz is still important in the theory of definition and can be developed by applying Hilary Putnam’s theory of reference of natural kind terms and Karl Popper’s fallibilism. On the one hand, the definiendum of a real definition refers to a natural kind of things and, on the other hand, the definiens of such a definition expresses actual, empirical, fallible knowledge which can be revised and changed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5030020

Authors: Constantino Tsallis

Boltzmann introduced in the 1870s a logarithmic measure for the connection between the thermodynamical entropy and the probabilities of the microscopic configurations of the system. His celebrated entropic functional for classical systems was then extended by Gibbs to the entire phase space of a many-body system and by von Neumann in order to cover quantum systems, as well. Finally, it was used by Shannon within the theory of information. The simplest expression of this functional corresponds to a discrete set of W microscopic possibilities and is given by S B G = − k ∑ i = 1 W p i ln p i (k is a positive universal constant; BG stands for Boltzmann–Gibbs). This relation enables the construction of BGstatistical mechanics, which, together with the Maxwell equations and classical, quantum and relativistic mechanics, constitutes one of the pillars of contemporary physics. The BG theory has provided uncountable important applications in physics, chemistry, computational sciences, economics, biology, networks and others. As argued in the textbooks, its application in physical systems is legitimate whenever the hypothesis of ergodicity is satisfied, i.e., when ensemble and time averages coincide. However, what can we do when ergodicity and similar simple hypotheses are violated, which indeed happens in very many natural, artificial and social complex systems. The possibility of generalizing BG statistical mechanics through a family of non-additive entropies was advanced in 1988, namely S q = k 1 − ∑ i = 1 W p i q q − 1 , which recovers the additive S B G entropy in the q→ 1 limit. The index q is to be determined from mechanical first principles, corresponding to complexity universality classes. Along three decades, this idea intensively evolved world-wide (see the Bibliography in http://tsallis.cat.cbpf.br/biblio.htm) and led to a plethora of predictions, verifications and applications in physical systems and elsewhere. As expected, whenever a paradigm shift is explored, some controversy naturally emerged, as well, in the community. The present status of the general picture is here described, starting from its dynamical and thermodynamical foundations and ending with its most recent physical applications.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5030019

Authors: Marek Magdziak

This paper deals with several problems concerning notion of existential dependence and ontological notions of existence, necessity and fusion. Following some ideas of Eugenia Ginsberg-Blaustein, the notions are treated in reference to objects, in relation to the concepts of state of affairs and subject of state of affairs. It provides an axiomatic characterization of these concepts within the framework of a multi-modal propositional logic and then presents a semantic analysis of these concepts. The semantics are a slight modification to the standard relational semantics for normal modal propositional logic.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020018

Authors: Rafal Urbaniak

This paper starts with an explanation of how the logicist research program can be approached within the framework of Leśniewski’s systems. One nice feature of the system is that Hume’s Principle is derivable in it from an explicit definition of natural numbers. I generalize this result to show that all predicative abstraction principles corresponding to second-level relations, which are provably equivalence relations, are provable. However, the system fails, despite being much neater than the construction of Principia Mathematica (PM). One of the key reasons is that, just as in the case of the system of PM, without the assumption that infinitely many objects exist, (renderings of) most of the standard axioms of Peano Arithmetic are not derivable in the system. I prove that introducing modal quantifiers meant to capture the intuitions behind potential infinity results in the (renderings of) axioms of Peano Arithmetic (PA) being valid in all relational models (i.e. Kripke-style models, to be defined later on) of the extended language. The second, historical part of the paper contains a user-friendly description of Leśniewski’s own arithmetic and a brief investigation into its properties.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020017

Authors: Etienne Kerre Lynn D´eer Bart Van Gasse

During the past 40 years of fuzzy research at the Fuzziness and Uncertainty Modeling research unit of Ghent University several axiomatic systems and characterizations have been introduced. In this paper we highlight some of them. The main purpose of this paper consists of an invitation to continue research on these first attempts to axiomatize important concepts and systems in fuzzy set theory. Currently, these attempts are spread over many journals; with this paper they are now collected in a neat overview. In the literature, many axiom systems have been introduced, but as far as we know the axiomatic system of Huntington concerning a Boolean algebra has been the only one where the axioms have been proven independent. Another line of further research could be with respect to the simplification of these systems, in discovering redundancies between the axioms.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020015

Authors: Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska

In this paper, two axiomatic theories T− and T′ are constructed, which are dual to Tarski’s theory T+ (1930) of deductive systems based on classical propositional calculus. While in Tarski’s theory T+ the primitive notion is the classical consequence function (entailment) Cn+, in the dual theory T− it is replaced by the notion of Słupecki’s rejection consequence Cn− and in the dual theory T′ it is replaced by the notion of the family Incons of inconsistent sets. The author has proved that the theories T+, T−, and T′ are equivalent.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020016

Authors: Damian Niwiński

The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020014

Authors: Andrzej Wiśniewski

An axiomatic system for question evocation in Classical Propositional Logic is proposed. Soundness and completeness of the system are proven.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020013

Authors: Jon Johnsen

This paper develops some deeper consequences of an extended definition, proposed previously by the author, of pseudo-differential operators that are of type 1 , 1 in Hörmander’s sense. Thus, it contributes to the long-standing problem of creating a systematic theory of such operators. It is shown that type 1 , 1 -operators are defined and continuous on the full space of temperate distributions, if they fulfil Hörmander’s twisted diagonal condition, or more generally if they belong to the self-adjoint subclass; and that they are always defined on the temperate smooth functions. As a main tool the paradifferential decomposition is derived for type 1 , 1 -operators, and to confirm a natural hypothesis the symmetric term is shown to cause the domain restrictions; whereas the other terms are shown to define nice type 1 , 1 -operators fulfilling the twisted diagonal condition. The decomposition is analysed in the type 1 , 1 -context by combining the Spectral Support Rule and the factorisation inequality, which gives pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators in terms of maximal functions.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020012

Authors: Palle Jorgensen Feng Tian

We study densely defined unbounded operators acting between different Hilbert spaces. For these, we introduce a notion of symmetric (closable) pairs of operators. The purpose of our paper is to give applications to selected themes at the cross road of operator commutation relations and stochastic calculus. We study a family of representations of the canonical commutation relations (CCR)-algebra (an infinite number of degrees of freedom), which we call admissible. The family of admissible representations includes the Fock-vacuum representation. We show that, to every admissible representation, there is an associated Gaussian stochastic calculus, and we point out that the case of the Fock-vacuum CCR-representation in a natural way yields the operators of Malliavin calculus. We thus get the operators of Malliavin’s calculus of variation from a more algebraic approach than is common. We further obtain explicit and natural formulas, and rules, for the operators of stochastic calculus. Our approach makes use of a notion of symmetric (closable) pairs of operators. The Fock-vacuum representation yields a maximal symmetric pair. This duality viewpoint has the further advantage that issues with unbounded operators and dense domains can be resolved much easier than what is possible with alternative tools. With the use of CCR representation theory, we also obtain, as a byproduct, a number of new results in multi-variable operator theory which we feel are of independent interest.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020011

Authors: Sidney Morris

It was in 1969 that I began my graduate studies on topological group theory and I often dived into one of the following five books. My favourite book “Abstract Harmonic Analysis” [1] by Ed Hewitt and Ken Ross contains both a proof of the Pontryagin-van Kampen Duality Theorem for locally compact abelian groups and the structure theory of locally compact abelian groups.[...]

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020010

Authors: Pushpa Rathie Paulo Silva Gabriela Olinto

We use the skew distribution generation procedure proposed by Azzalini [Scand. J. Stat., 1985, 12, 171–178] to create three new probability distribution functions. These models make use of normal, student-t and generalized logistic distribution, see Rathie and Swamee [Technical Research Report No. 07/2006. Department of Statistics, University of Brasilia: Brasilia, Brazil, 2006]. Expressions for the moments about origin are derived. Graphical illustrations are also provided. The distributions derived in this paper can be seen as generalizations of the distributions given by Nadarajah and Kotz [Acta Appl. Math., 2006, 91, 1–37]. Applications with unimodal and bimodal data are given to illustrate the applicability of the results derived in this paper. The applications include the analysis of the following data sets: (a) spending on public education in various countries in 2003; (b) total expenditure on health in 2009 in various countries and (c) waiting time between eruptions of the Old Faithful Geyser in the Yellow Stone National Park, Wyoming, USA. We compare the fit of the distributions introduced in this paper with the distributions given by Nadarajah and Kotz [Acta Appl. Math., 2006, 91, 1–37]. The results show that our distributions, in general, fit better the data sets. The general R codes for fitting the distributions introduced in this paper are given in Appendix A.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5020009

Authors: Angel Garrido Piedad Yuste

The Lvov-Warsaw School (L-WS) was the most important movement in the history of Polish philosophy, and certainly prominent in the general history of philosophy, and 20th century logics and mathematics in particular.[...]

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010008

Authors: Gary Horne Klaus-Peter Schwierz

Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO).

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010007

Authors: Esa Lappi Bernt Åkesson

In agent based models, the agents are usually platforms (individual soldiers, tanks, helicopters, etc.), not military units. In the Sandis software, the agents can be platoon size units. As there are about 30 soldiers in a platoon, there is a need for strength distribution in simulations. The contribution of this paper is a conceptual model of the platoon level agent, the needed mathematical models and concepts, and references earlier studies of how simulations have been conducted in a data farming environment with platoon/squad size unit agents with strength distribution.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010006

Authors: Yuri Luchko

In this paper, the one-dimensional α-fractional diffusion equation is revisited. This equation is a particular case of the time- and space-fractional diffusion equation with the quotient of the orders of the time- and space-fractional derivatives equal to one-half. First, some integral representations of its fundamental solution including the Mellin-Barnes integral representation are derived. Then a series representation and asymptotics of the fundamental solution are discussed. The fundamental solution is interpreted as a probability density function and its entropy in the Shannon sense is calculated. The entropy production rate of the stochastic process governed by the α-fractional diffusion equation is shown to be equal to one of the conventional diffusion equation.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010005

Authors: Gandalf Lechner Ko Sanders

A quantum field theory in its algebraic description may admit many irregular states. So far, selection criteria to distinguish physically reasonable states have been restricted to free fields (Hadamard condition) or to flat spacetimes (e.g., Buchholz-Wichmann nuclearity). We propose instead to use a modular ℓp -condition, which is an extension of a strengthened modular nuclearity condition to generally covariant theories. The modular nuclearity condition was previously introduced in Minkowski space, where it played an important role in constructive two dimensional algebraic QFT’s. We show that our generally covariant extension of this condition makes sense for a vast range of theories, and that it behaves well under causal propagation and taking mixtures. In addition we show that our modular ℓp -condition holds for every quasi-free Hadamard state of a free scalar quantum field (regardless of mass or scalar curvature coupling). However, our condition is not equivalent to the Hadamard condition.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010004

Authors: Gary Horne Theodore Meyer

Data Farming, network applications and approaches to integrate network analysis and processes to the data farming paradigm are presented as approaches to address complex system questions. Data Farming is a quantified approach that examines questions in large possibility spaces using modeling and simulation. It evaluates whole landscapes of outcomes to draw insights from outcome distributions and outliers. Social network analysis and graph theory are widely used techniques for the evaluation of social systems. Incorporation of these techniques into the data farming process provides analysts examining complex systems with a powerful new suite of tools for more fully exploring and understanding the effect of interactions in complex systems. The integration of network analysis with data farming techniques provides modelers with the capability to gain insight into the effect of network attributes, whether the network is explicitly defined or emergent, on the breadth of the model outcome space and the effect of model inputs on the resultant network statistics.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010003

Authors: Axioms Editorial Office

The editors of Axioms would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...]

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010002

Authors: W. Comfort Dieter Remus

Here are three recently-established theorems from the literature. (A) (2006) Every non-metrizable compact abelian group K has 2|K| -many proper dense pseudocompact subgroups. (B) (2003) Every non-metrizable compact abelian group K admits 22|K| -many strictly finer pseudocompact topological group refinements. (C) (2007) Every non-metrizable pseudocompact abelian group has a proper dense pseudocompact subgroup and a strictly finer pseudocompact topological group refinement. (Theorems (A), (B) and (C) become false if the non-metrizable hypothesis is omitted.) With a detailed view toward the relevant literature, the present authors ask: What happens to (A), (B), (C) and to similar known facts about pseudocompact abelian groups if the abelian hypothesis is omitted? Are the resulting statements true, false, true under certain natural additional hypotheses, etc.? Several new results responding in part to these questions are given, and several specific additional questions are posed.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms5010001

Authors: Seemon Thomas

This is a brief exposition of some statistical techniques utilized to obtain several useful integral equations involving G-functions.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4040530

Authors: Nicy Sebastian Seema S. Nair Dhannya P. Joseph

Pathway idea is a switching mechanism by which one can go from one functional form to another, and to yet another. It is shown that through a parameter α, called the pathway parameter, one can connect generalized type-1 beta family of densities, generalized type-2 beta family of densities, and generalized gamma family of densities, in the scalar as well as the matrix cases, also in the real and complex domains. It is shown that when the model is applied to physical situations then the current hot topics of Tsallis statistics and superstatistics in statistical mechanics become special cases of the pathway model, and the model is capable of capturing many stable situations as well as the unstable or chaotic neighborhoods of the stable situations and transitional stages. The pathway model is shown to be connected to generalized information measures or entropies, power law, likelihood ratio criterion or λ - criterion in multivariate statistical analysis, generalized Dirichlet densities, fractional calculus, Mittag-Leffler stochastic process, Krätzel integral in applied analysis, and many other topics in different disciplines. The pathway model enables one to extend the current results on quadratic and bilinear forms, when the samples come from Gaussian populations, to wider classes of populations.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4040518

Authors: Vincent Ervin Michaela Kubacki William Layton Marina Moraiti Zhiyong Si Catalin Trenchea

There has been a surge of work on models for coupling surface-water with groundwater flows which is at its core the Stokes-Darcy problem. The resulting (Stokes-Darcy) fluid velocity is important because the flow transports contaminants. The analysis of models including the transport of contaminants has, however, focused on a quasi-static Stokes-Darcy model. Herein we consider the fully evolutionary system including contaminant transport and analyze its quasi-static limits.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4040492

Authors: Ol’ga Sipacheva

Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4040459

Authors: Dikran Dikranjan Anna Giordano Bruno Daniele Impieri

A subgroup H of a topological abelian group X is said to be characterized by a sequence v = (vn) of characters of X if H = {x ∈ X : vn(x) → 0 in T}. We study the basic properties of characterized subgroups in the general setting, extending results known in the compact case. For a better description, we isolate various types of characterized subgroups. Moreover, we introduce the relevant class of auto-characterized groups (namely, the groups that are characterized subgroups of themselves by means of a sequence of non-null characters); in the case of locally compact abelian groups, these are proven to be exactly the non-compact ones. As a by-product of our results, we find a complete description of the characterized subgroups of discrete abelian groups.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4040436

Authors: Lydia Außenhofer Dikran Dikranjan Elena Martín-Peinador

For a locally quasi-convex topological abelian group (G,τ), we study the poset \(\mathscr{C}(G,τ)\) of all locally quasi-convex topologies on (G) that are compatible with (τ) (i.e., have the same dual as (G,τ) ordered by inclusion. Obviously, this poset has always a bottom element, namely the weak topology σ(G,\(\widehat{G})\) . Whether it has also a top element is an open question. We study both quantitative aspects of this poset (its size) and its qualitative aspects, e.g., its chains and anti-chains. Since we are mostly interested in estimates ``from below'', our strategy consists of finding appropriate subgroups (H) of (G) that are easier to handle and show that \(\mathscr{C} (H)\) and \(\mathscr{C} (G/H)\) are large and embed, as a poset, in \(\mathscr{C}(G,τ)\). Important special results are: (i) if \(K\) is a compact subgroup of a locally quasi-convex group \(G\), then \(\mathscr{C}(G)\) and \(\mathscr{C}(G/K)\) are quasi-isomorphic (3.15); (ii) if (D) is a discrete abelian group of infinite rank, then \(\mathscr{C}(D)\) is quasi-isomorphic to the poset \(\mathfrak{F}_D\) of filters on D (4.5). Combining both results, we prove that for an LCA (locally compact abelian) group \(G \) with an open subgroup of infinite co-rank (this class includes, among others, all non-σ-compact LCA groups), the poset \( \mathscr{C} (G) \) is as big as the underlying topological structure of (G,τ) (and set theory) allows. For a metrizable connected compact group \(X\), the group of null sequences \(G=c_0(X)\) with the topology of uniform convergence is studied. We prove that \(\mathscr{C}(G)\) is quasi-isomorphic to \(\mathscr{P}(\mathbb{R})\) (6.9).

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4040423

Authors: Florin Nichita

Computational methods are an important tool for solving the Yang–Baxter equations (in small dimensions), for classifying (unifying) structures and for solving related problems. This paper is an account of some of the latest developments on the Yang–Baxter equation, its set-theoretical version and its applications. We construct new set-theoretical solutions for the Yang–Baxter equation. Unification theories and other results are proposed or proven.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4030412

Authors: Dilip Kumar

Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

]]>Axioms doi: 10.3390/axioms4030400

Authors: James Malley Anthony Fletcher

In 1940 Naimark showed that if a set of quantum observables are positive semi-definite and sum to the identity then, on a larger space, they have a joint resolution as commuting projectors. In 1955 Sz.-Nagy showed that any set of observables could be so resolved, with the resolution respecting all linear sums. Crucially, both resolutions return the correct Born probabilities for the original observables. Here, an alternative proof of the Sz.-Nagy result is given using elementary inner product spaces. A version of the resolution is then shown to respect all products of observables on the base space. Practical and theoretical consequences are indicated. For example, quantum statistical inference problems that involve any algebraic functionals can now be studied using classical statistical methods over commuting observables. The estimation of quantum states is a problem of this type. Further, as theoretical objects, classical and quantum systems are now distinguished by only more or less degrees of freedom.

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Authors: Nicy Sebastian

The essentials of fractional calculus according to different approaches that can be useful for our applications in the theory of probability and stochastic processes are established. In addition to this, from this fractional integral, one can list out almost all of the extended densities for the pathway parameter q &lt; 1 and q → 1. Here, we bring out the idea of thicker- or thinner-tailed models associated with a gamma-type distribution as a limiting case of the pathway operator. Applications of this extended gamma model in statistical mechanics, input-output models, solar spectral irradiance modeling, etc., are established.

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Authors: Seema Nair

Recently, probability models with thicker or thinner tails have gained more importance among statisticians and physicists because of their vast applications in random walks, Lévi flights, financial modeling, etc. In this connection, we introduce here a new family of generalized probability distributions associated with the Mittag–Leffler function. This family gives an extension to the generalized gamma family, opens up a vast area of potential applications and establishes connections to the topics of fractional calculus, nonextensive statistical mechanics, Tsallis statistics, superstatistics, the Mittag–Leffler stochastic process, the Lévi process and time series. Apart from examining the properties, the matrix-variate analogue and the connection to fractional calculus are also explained. By using the pathway model of Mathai, the model is further generalized. Connections to Mittag–Leffler distributions and corresponding autoregressive processes are also discussed.

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Authors: Yoshihiro Hamaya Tomomi Itokazu Kaori Saito

In order to obtain the conditions for the existence of periodic and almost periodic solutions of Volterra difference equations, \( x(n+1)=f(n,x(n))+\sum_{s=-\infty}^{n}F(n,s, {x(n+s)},x(n)) \), we consider certain stability properties, which are referred to as (K, \( \rho \))-weakly uniformly-asymptotic stability and (K, \( \rho \))-uniformly asymptotic stability. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the \( \rho \)-separation condition and the uniformly-asymptotic stability property in the \( \rho \) sense.

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Authors: Rudolf Gorenflo Francesco Mainardi

We consider the renewal counting number process N = N(t) as a forward march over the non-negative integers with independent identically distributed waiting times. We embed the values of the counting numbers N in a “pseudo-spatial” non-negative half-line x ≥ 0 and observe that for physical time likewise we have t ≥ 0. Thus we apply the Laplace transform with respect to both variables x and t. Applying then a modification of the Montroll-Weiss-Cox formalism of continuous time random walk we obtain the essential characteristics of a renewal process in the transform domain and, if we are lucky, also in the physical domain. The process t = t(N) of accumulation of waiting times is inverse to the counting number process, in honour of the Danish mathematician and telecommunication engineer A.K. Erlang we call it the Erlang process. It yields the probability of exactly n renewal events in the interval (0; t]. We apply our Laplace-Laplace formalism to the fractional Poisson process whose waiting times are of Mittag-Leffler type and to a renewal process whose waiting times are of Wright type. The process of Mittag-Leffler type includes as a limiting case the classical Poisson process, the process of Wright type represents the discretized stable subordinator and a re-scaled version of it was used in our method of parametric subordination of time-space fractional diffusion processes. Properly rescaling the counting number process N(t) and the Erlang process t(N) yields as diffusion limits the inverse stable and the stable subordinator, respectively.

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Authors: Morris Hirsch

I discuss old and new results on fixed points of local actions by Lie groups G on real and complex 2-manifolds, and zero sets of Lie algebras of vector fields. Results of E. Lima, J. Plante and C. Bonatti are reviewed.

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Authors: Karl Hofmann Sidney Morris

A topological group is called a pro-Lie group if it is isomorphic to a closed subgroup of a product of finite-dimensional real Lie groups. This class of groups is closed under the formation of arbitrary products and closed subgroups and forms a complete category. It includes each finite-dimensional Lie group, each locally-compact group that has a compact quotient group modulo its identity component and, thus, in particular, each compact and each connected locally-compact group; it also includes all locally-compact Abelian groups. This paper provides an overview of the structure theory and the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups, including results more recent than those in the authors’ reference book on pro-Lie groups. Significantly, it also includes a review of the recent insight that weakly-complete unital algebras provide a natural habitat for both pro-Lie algebras and pro-Lie groups, indeed for the exponential function that links the two. (A topological vector space is weakly complete if it is isomorphic to a power RX of an arbitrary set of copies of R. This class of real vector spaces is at the basis of the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups.) The article also lists 12 open questions connected to pro-Lie groups.

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Authors: Hewayda ElGhawalby Edwin Hancock

In this paper, we investigate the heat kernel embedding as a route to graph representation. The heat kernel of the graph encapsulates information concerning the distribution of path lengths and, hence, node affinities on the graph; and is found by exponentiating the Laplacian eigen-system over time. A Young–Householder decomposition is performed on the heat kernel to obtain the matrix of the embedded coordinates for the nodes of the graph. With the embeddings at hand, we establish a graph characterization based on differential geometry by computing sets of curvatures associated with the graph edges and triangular faces. A sectional curvature computed from the difference between geodesic and Euclidean distances between nodes is associated with the edges of the graph. Furthermore, we use the Gauss–Bonnet theorem to compute the Gaussian curvatures associated with triangular faces of the graph.

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Authors: Serge Provost

This paper provides a simplified representation of the exact density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. The odd and even moments of R are also obtained in closed forms. Being expressed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, the resulting representations are readily computable. Some numerical examples corroborate the validity of the results derived herein.

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Authors: Mikhail Tkachenko

We prove that if a paratopological group G is a continuous image of an arbitrary product of regular Lindelöf Σ-spaces, then it is R-factorizable and has countable cellularity. If in addition, G is regular, then it is totally w-narrow and satisfies celw(G) ≤ w, and the Hewitt–Nachbin completion of G is again an R-factorizable paratopological group.

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Authors: Thomas Ernst

In this article, we move back almost 200 years to Christoph Gudermann, the great expert on elliptic functions, who successfully put the twelve Jacobi functions in a didactic setting. We prove the second hyperbolic series expansions for elliptic functions again, and express generalizations of many of Gudermann’s formulas in Carlson’s modern notation. The transformations between squares of elliptic functions can be expressed as general Möbius transformations, and a conjecture of twelve formulas, extending a Gudermannian formula, is presented. In the second part of the paper, we consider the corresponding formulas for hyperbolic modular functions, and show that these Möbius transformations can be used to prove integral formulas for the inverses of hyperbolic modular functions, which are in fact Schwarz-Christoffel transformations. Finally, we present the simplest formulas for the Gudermann Peeta functions, variations of the Jacobi theta functions. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 33E05; Secondary 33D15.

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Authors: Hans Haubold Arak Mathai

A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics at McGill University, Canada. He is currently the Director of the Centre for Mathematical and Statistical Sciences India. His research contributions cover a wide spectrum of topics in mathematics, statistics, physics, astronomy, and biology. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, National Academy of Sciences of India, and a member of the International Statistical Institute. He is a founder of the Canadian Journal of Statistics and the Statistical Society of Canada. He was instrumental in the implementation of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (1991–2012). This paper highlights research results of A.M. Mathai in the period of time from 1962 to 2015. He published over 300 research papers and over 25 books.

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Authors: Saak Gabriyelyan

A sequence \(\{ u_n \}_{n\in \omega}\) in abstract additively-written Abelian group \(G\) is called a \(T\)-sequence if there is a Hausdorff group topology on \(G\) relative to which \(\lim_n u_n =0\). We say that a subgroup \(H\) of an infinite compact Abelian group \(X\) is \(T\)-characterized if there is a \(T\)-sequence \(\mathbf{u} =\{ u_n \}\) in the dual group of \(X\), such that \(H=\{ x\in X: \; (u_n, x)\to 1 \}\). We show that a closed subgroup \(H\) of \(X\) is \(T\)-characterized if and only if \(H\) is a \(G_\delta\)-subgroup of \(X\) and the annihilator of \(H\) admits a Hausdorff minimally almost periodic group topology. All closed subgroups of an infinite compact Abelian group \(X\) are \(T\)-characterized if and only if \(X\) is metrizable and connected. We prove that every compact Abelian group \(X\) of infinite exponent has a \(T\)-characterized subgroup, which is not an \(F_{\sigma}\)-subgroup of \(X\), that gives a negative answer to Problem 3.3 in Dikranjan and Gabriyelyan (Topol. Appl. 2013, 160, 2427–2442).

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Authors: Rui Saramago

An enrichment of a category of Dieudonné modules is made by considering Yang–Baxter conditions, and these are used to obtain ring and coring operations on the corresponding Hopf algebras. Some examples of these induced structures are discussed, including those relating to the Morava K-theory of Eilenberg–MacLane spaces.

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Authors: Wei Zeng Muhammad Razib Abdur Shahid

Conventional splines offer powerful means for modeling surfaces and volumes in three-dimensional Euclidean space. A one-dimensional quaternion spline has been applied for animation purpose, where the splines are defined to model a one-dimensional submanifold in the three-dimensional Lie group. Given two surfaces, all of the diffeomorphisms between them form an infinite dimensional manifold, the so-called diffeomorphism space. In this work, we propose a novel scheme to model finite dimensional submanifolds in the diffeomorphism space by generalizing conventional splines. According to quasiconformal geometry theorem, each diffeomorphism determines a Beltrami differential on the source surface. Inversely, the diffeomorphism is determined by its Beltrami differential with normalization conditions. Therefore, the diffeomorphism space has one-to-one correspondence to the space of a special differential form. The convex combination of Beltrami differentials is still a Beltrami differential. Therefore, the conventional spline scheme can be generalized to the Beltrami differential space and, consequently, to the diffeomorphism space. Our experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of diffeomorphism splines. The diffeomorphism spline has many potential applications, such as surface registration, tracking and animation.

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Authors: Thomas Ernst

In an earlier paper, we found transformation and summation formulas for 43 q-hypergeometric functions of 2n variables. The aim of the present article is to find convergence regions and a few conjectures of convergence regions for these functions based on a vector version of the Nova q-addition. These convergence regions are given in a purely formal way, extending the results of Karlsson (1976). The Γq-function and the q-binomial coefficients, which are used in the proofs, are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, limits and special cases for the new functions, e.g., q-Lauricella functions and q-Horn functions, are pointed out.

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