Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1020013

Authors: Xukai Zou Huian Li Feng Li Wei Peng Yan Sui

Many e-voting techniques have been proposed but not widely used in reality. One of the problems associated with most existing e-voting techniques is the lack of transparency, leading to a failure to deliver voter assurance. In this work, we p verifiable, viewable, and mutual restraining e-voting protocol that exploits the existing multi-party political dynamics such as in the US. The new e-voting protocol consists of three original technical contributions—universal verifiable voting vector, forward and backward mutual lock voting, and in-process check and enforcement—that, along with a public real time bulletin board, resolves the apparent conflicts in voting such as anonymity vs. accountability and privacy vs. verifiability. Especially, the trust is split equally among tallying authorities who have conflicting interests and will technically restrain each other. The voting and tallying processes are transparent/viewable to anyone, which allow any voter to visually verify that his vote is indeed counted and also allow any third party to audit the tally, thus, enabling open and fair election. Depending on the voting environment, our interactive protocol is suitable for small groups where interaction is encouraged, while the non-interactive protocol allows large groups to vote without interaction.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1020012

Authors: Elham Kashefi Anna Pappa

Quantum computing has seen tremendous progress in the past few years. However, due to limitations in the scalability of quantum technologies, it seems that we are far from constructing universal quantum computers for everyday users. A more feasible solution is the delegation of computation to powerful quantum servers on the network. This solution was proposed in previous studies of blind quantum computation, with guarantees for both the secrecy of the input and of the computation being performed. In this work, we further develop this idea of computing over encrypted data, to propose a multiparty delegated quantum computing protocol in the measurement-based quantum computing framework. We prove the security of the protocol against a dishonest server and against dishonest clients, under the assumption of common classical cryptographic constructions.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1020011

Authors: Jamie Sikora

Die-rolling is the cryptographic task where two mistrustful, remote parties wish to generate a random D-sided die-roll over a communication channel. Optimal quantum protocols for this task have been given by Aharon and Silman (New Journal of Physics, 2010) but are based on optimal weak coin-flipping protocols that are currently very complicated and not very well understood. In this paper, we first present very simple classical protocols for die-rolling that have decent (and sometimes optimal) security, which is in stark contrast to coin-flipping, bit-commitment, oblivious transfer, and many other two-party cryptographic primitives. We also present quantum protocols based on the idea of integer-commitment, a generalization of bit-commitment, where one wishes to commit to an integer. We analyze these protocols using semidefinite programming and finally give protocols that are very close to Kitaev’s lower bound for any D ≥ 3 . Lastly, we briefly discuss an application of this work to the quantum state discrimination problem.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1020010

Authors: George Hatzivasilis

Computers are used in our everyday activities, with high volumes of users accessing provided services. One-factor authentication consisting of a username and a password is the common choice to authenticate users in the web. However, the poor password management practices are exploited by attackers that disclose the users’ credentials, harming both users and vendors. In most of these occasions the user data were stored in clear or were just processed by a cryptographic hash function. Password-hashing techniques are applied to fortify this user-related information. The standardized primitive is currently the PBKDF2 while other widely-used schemes include Bcrypt and Scrypt. The evolution of parallel computing enables several attacks in password-hash cracking. The international cryptographic community conducted the Password Hashing Competition (PHC) to identify new efficient and more secure password-hashing schemes, suitable for widespread adoption. PHC advanced our knowledge of password-hashing. Further analysis efforts revealed security weaknesses and novel schemes were designed afterwards. This paper provides a review of password-hashing schemes until the first quarter of 2017 and a relevant performance evaluation analysis on a common setting in terms of code size, memory consumption, and execution time.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010009

Authors: Swapnoneel Roy Chanchal Khatwani

Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is extensively used in various multifactor authentication protocols. In this work, various recent ECC-based authentication and key exchange protocols are subjected to threat modeling and static analysis to detect vulnerabilities and to enhance them to be more secure against threats. This work demonstrates how currently-used ECC-based protocols are vulnerable to attacks. If protocols are vulnerable, damage could include critical data loss and elevated privacy concerns. The protocols considered in this work differ in their usage of security factors (e.g., passwords, pins and biometrics), encryption and timestamps. The threat model considers various kinds of attacks including denial of service, man in the middle, weak authentication and SQL injection. Countermeasures to reduce or prevent such attacks are suggested. Beyond cryptanalysis of current schemes and the proposal of new schemes, the proposed adversary model and criteria set forth provide a benchmark for the systematic evaluation of future two-factor authentication proposals.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010008

Authors: Wenjie Che Venkata Kajuluri Mitchell Martin Fareena Saqib Jim Plusquellic

The magnitude of the information content associated with a particular implementation of a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is critically important for security and trust in emerging Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Authentication, in particular, requires the PUF to produce a very large number of challenge-response-pairs (CRPs) and, of even greater importance, requires the PUF to be resistant to adversarial attacks that attempt to model and clone the PUF (model-building attacks). Entropy is critically important to the model-building resistance of the PUF. A variety of metrics have been proposed for reporting Entropy, each measuring the randomness of information embedded within PUF-generated bitstrings. In this paper, we report the Entropy, MinEntropy, conditional MinEntropy, Interchip hamming distance and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test results using bitstrings generated by a Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF called HELP. The bitstrings are generated from data collected in hardware experiments on 500 copies of HELP implemented on a set of Xilinx Zynq 7020 SoC Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) subjected to industrial-level temperature and voltage conditions. Special test cases are constructed which purposely create worst case correlations for bitstring generation. Our results show that the processes proposed within HELP to generate bitstrings add significantly to their Entropy, and show that classical re-use of PUF components, e.g., path delays, does not result in large Entropy losses commonly reported for other PUF architectures.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010007

Authors: Leyla Işık Arne Winterhof

We estimate the maximum-order complexity of a binary sequence in terms of its correlation measures. Roughly speaking, we show that any sequence with small correlation measure up to a sufficiently large order k cannot have very small maximum-order complexity.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010006

Authors: Elham Kashefi Petros Wallden

The universal blind quantum computation protocol (UBQC) enables an almost classical client to delegate a quantum computation to an untrusted quantum server (in the form of a garbled quantum circuit) while the security for the client is unconditional. In this contribution, we explore the possibility of extending the verifiable UBQC, to achieve further functionalities following the analogous research for classical circuits (Yao 1986). First, exploring the asymmetric nature of UBQC (the client preparing only single qubits, while the server runs the entire quantum computation), we present a “Yao”-type protocol for secure two-party quantum computation. Similar to the classical setting, our quantum Yao protocol is secure against a specious (quantum honest-but-curious) garbler, but in our case, against a (fully) malicious evaluator. Unlike the previous work on quantum two-party computation of Dupuis et al., 2010, we do not require any online-quantum communication between the garbler and the evaluator and, thus, no extra cryptographic primitive. This feature will allow us to construct a simple universal one-time compiler for any quantum computation using one-time memory, in a similar way to the classical work of Goldwasser et al., 2008, while more efficiently than the previous work of Broadbent et al., 2013.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010005

Authors: Nicolas Sklavos

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]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010004

Authors: Daniel Costa Solenir Figuerêdo Gledson Oliveira

Wireless multimedia sensor networks will play a central role in the Internet of Things world, providing content-rich information for an uncountable number of monitoring and control scenarios. As more applications rely on multimedia data, security concerns gain attention, and new approaches arise to provide security for such networks. However, the usual resource constraints of processing, memory and the energy of multimedia-based sensors have brought different challenges for data encryption, which have driven the development of different security approaches. In this context, this article presents the state-of-the-art of cryptography in wireless multimedia sensor networks, surveying innovative works in this area and discussing promising research directions.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010003

Authors: Wenjie Che Mitchell Martin Goutham Pocklassery Venkata Kajuluri Fareena Saqib Jim Plusquellic

This paper describes an authentication protocol using a Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF called HELP. HELP derives randomness from within-die path delay variations that occur along the paths within a hardware implementation of a cryptographic primitive, such as AES or SHA-3. The digitized timing values which represent the path delays are stored in a database on a secure server (verifier) as an alternative to storing PUF response bitstrings. This enables the development of an efficient authentication protocol that provides both privacy and mutual authentication. The security properties of the protocol are analyzed using data collected from a set of Xilinx Zynq FPGAs.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010002

Authors: Shoni Gilboa Shay Gueron Mridul Nandi

The r-rounds Even–Mansour block cipher is a generalization of the well known Even–Mansour block cipher to r iterations. Attacks on this construction were described by Nikolić et al. and Dinur et al. for r = 2 , 3 . These attacks are only marginally better than brute force but are based on an interesting observation (due to Nikolić et al.): for a “typical” permutation P, the distribution of P ( x ) ⊕ x is not uniform. This naturally raises the following question. Let us call permutations for which the distribution of P ( x ) ⊕ x is uniformly “balanced” — is there a sufficiently large family of balanced permutations, and what is the security of the resulting Even–Mansour block cipher? We show how to generate families of balanced permutations from the Luby–Rackoff construction and use them to define a 2 n -bit block cipher from the 2-round Even–Mansour scheme. We prove that this cipher is indistinguishable from a random permutation of { 0 , 1 } 2 n , for any adversary who has oracle access to the public permutations and to an encryption/decryption oracle, as long as the number of queries is o ( 2 n / 2 ) . As a practical example, we discuss the properties and the performance of a 256-bit block cipher that is based on our construction, and uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), with a fixed key, as the public permutation.

]]>Cryptography doi: 10.3390/cryptography1010001

Authors: Kwangjo Kim

Cryptography has very long history, from ancient ciphers, such as Ceaser cipher, machine (or rotor) cipherx during WWI and WWII, and modern ciphers, which play a fundamental role in providing Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authentication services during transmission, processing, and storage of the sensitive data over the open or public networks. [...]

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