Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6040045

Authors: Frédéric Magoulès Guillaume Gbikpi-Benissan Qinmeng Zou

Spatial domain decomposition methods have been largely investigated in the last decades, while time domain decomposition seems to be contrary to intuition and so is not as popular as the former. However, many attractive methods have been proposed, especially the parareal algorithm, which showed both theoretical and experimental efficiency in the context of parallel computing. In this paper, we present an original model of asynchronous variant based on the parareal scheme, applied to the European option pricing problem. Some numerical experiments are given to illustrate the convergence performance and computational efficiency of such a method.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030044

Authors: Adela Mihai Ion Mihai

We consider statistical submanifolds of Hessian manifolds of constant Hessian curvature. For such submanifolds we establish a Euler inequality and a Chen-Ricci inequality with respect to a sectional curvature of the ambient Hessian manifold.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030043

Authors: Tien Nguyen Hien Tran Andy Guillen Tung Bui Sumner Matsunaga

This paper provides a high-level discussion and propositions of frameworks and models for acquisition strategy of complex systems. In particular, it presents an innovative system engineering approach to model the Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition process and offers several optimization modules including simulation models using game theory and war-gaming concepts. Our frameworks employ Advanced Game-based Mathematical Framework (AGMF) and Unified Game-based Acquisition Framework (UGAF), and related advanced simulation and mathematical models that include a set of War-Gaming Engines (WGEs) implemented in MATLAB statistical optimization models. WGEs are defined as a set of algorithms, characterizing the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB), technology enablers, architectural solutions, contract type, contract parameters and associated incentives, and industry bidding position. As a proof of concept, Aerospace, in collaboration with the North Carolina State University (NCSU) and University of Hawaii (UH), successfully applied and extended the proposed frameworks and decision models to determine the optimum contract parameters and incentives for a Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) contract. As a result, we can suggest a set of acquisition strategies that ensure the optimization of the PTB.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030042

Authors: Musavarah Sarwar Muhammad Akram

Real data and measures are usually uncertain and cannot be satisfactorily described by accurate real numbers. The imprecision and vagueness should be modeled and represented in data using the concept of fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy splines are proposed as an integrated approach to uncertainty in mathematical interpolation models. In the context of surface modeling, fuzzy tensor product Bézier surfaces are suitable for representing and simplifying both crisp and imprecise surface data with fuzzy numbers. The framework of this research paper is concerned with various properties of fuzzy tensor product surface patches by means of fuzzy numbers including fuzzy parametric curves, affine invariance, fuzzy tangents, convex hull and fuzzy iso-parametric curves. The fuzzification and defuzzification processes are applied to obtain the crisp Beziér curves and surfaces from fuzzy data points. The degree elevation and de Casteljau’s algorithms for fuzzy Bézier curves and fuzzy tensor product Bézier surfaces are studied in detail with numerical examples.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030041

Authors: Malay Banerjee Nayana Mukherjee Vitaly Volpert

Spatiotemporal pattern formation in integro-differential equation models of interacting populations is an active area of research, which has emerged through the introduction of nonlocal intra- and inter-specific interactions. Stationary patterns are reported for nonlocal interactions in prey and predator populations for models with prey-dependent functional response, specialist predator and linear intrinsic death rate for predator species. The primary goal of our present work is to consider nonlocal consumption of resources in a spatiotemporal prey-predator model with bistable reaction kinetics for prey growth in the absence of predators. We derive the conditions of the Turing and of the spatial Hopf bifurcation around the coexisting homogeneous steady-state and verify the analytical results through extensive numerical simulations. Bifurcations of spatial patterns are also explored numerically.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030040

Authors: Ali Rezaiguia Smail Kelaiaia

In this paper, we study a third-order differential inclusion with three-point boundary conditions. We prove the existence of a solution under convexity conditions on the multi-valued right-hand side; the proof is based on a nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder type. We also study the compactness of the set of solutions and establish some Filippov’s- type results for this problem.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030039

Authors: Ricardo Bioni Liberalquino Maurizio Monge Stefano Galatolo Luigi Marangio

We consider a random dynamical system arising as a model of the behavior of a macrovariable related to a more complicated model of associative memory. This system can be seen as a small (stochastic and deterministic) perturbation of a determinstic system having two weak attractors which are destroyed after the perturbation. We show, with a computer aided proof, that the system has a kind of chaotic itineracy. Typical orbits are globally chaotic, while they spend a relatively long time visiting the attractor’s ruins.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030038

Authors: Marouane Airouss Mohamed Tahiri Amale Lahlou Abdelhak Hassouni

In this paper, we have analyzed and tested the Expected Tail Loss (ETL) approach for the Value at Risk (VaR) on the Moroccan stock market portfolio. We have compared the results with the general approaches for the standard VaR, which has been the most suitable method for Moroccan stock investors up to now. These methods calculate the maximum loss that a portfolio is likely to experience over a given time span. Our work advances those modeling methods with supplementation by inputs from the ETL approach for application to the Moroccan stock market portfolio—the Moroccan All Shares Index (MASI). We calculate these indicators using several methods, according to an easy and fast implementation with a high-level probability and with accommodation for extreme risks; this is in order to numerically simulate and study their behavior to better understand investment opportunities and, thus, form a clear view of the Moroccan financial landscape.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030037

Authors: Huseyin Isik Nurcan Gungor Choonkil Park Sun Jang

In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of a fixed point of almost contractions via simulation functions in metric spaces. Moreover, some examples and an application to integral equations are given to support availability of the obtained results.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030036

Authors: Nikhil Pal Sudip Samanta Maia Martcheva Joydev Chattopadhyay

Migration is a key ecological process that enables connections between spatially separated populations. Previous studies have indicated that migration can stabilize chaotic ecosystems. However, the role of migration for two similar types of ecosystems, one chaotic and the other stable, has not yet been studied properly. In the present paper, we investigate the stability of ecological systems that are spatially separated but connected through migration. We consider two similar types of ecosystems that are coupled through migration, where one system shows chaotic dynamics, and other shows stable dynamics. We also note that the direction of the migration is bi-directional and is regulated by the population densities. We propose and analyze the coupled system. We also apply our proposed scheme to three different models. Our results suggest that bi-directional migration makes the coupled system more regular. We have performed numerical simulations to illustrate the dynamics of the coupled systems.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030035

Authors: Stéphane Chrétien Juan-Pablo Ortega

The Hilbert metric is a widely used tool for analysing the convergence of Markov processes and the ergodic properties of deterministic dynamical systems. A useful representation formula for the Hilbert metric was given by Liverani. The goal of the present paper is to extend this formula to the non-compact and multidimensional setting with a different cone, taylored for sub-Gaussian tails.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030034

Authors: Davide De Gaetano

Realized volatility, building on the theory of a simple continuous time process, has recently received attention as a nonparametric ex-post estimate of the return variation. This paper addresses the problem of parameter instability due to the presence of structural breaks in realized volatility in the context of three HAR-type models. The analysis is conducted on four major U.S. equity indices. More specifically, a recursive testing methodology is performed to evaluate the null hypothesis of constant parameters, and then, the performance of several forecast combinations based on different weighting schemes is compared in an out-of-sample variance forecasting exercise. The main findings are the following: (i) the hypothesis of constant model parameters is rejected for all markets under consideration; (ii) in all cases, the recursive forecasting approach, which is appropriate in the absence of structural changes, is outperformed by forecast combination schemes; and (iii) weighting schemes that assign more weight in most recent observations are superior in the majority of cases.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030033

Authors: Mohammed Salaheldeen Abdelgader Chunxiang Wang Sarra Abdalrhman Mohammed

There are several chemical indices that have been introduced in theoretical chemistry to measure the properties of molecular topology, such as distance-based topological indices, degree-based topological indices and counting-related topological indices. Among the degree-based topological indices, the atom-bond connectivity ( A B C ) index and geometric–arithmetic ( G A ) index are the most important, because of their chemical significance. Certain physicochemical properties, such as the boiling point, stability and strain energy, of chemical compounds are correlated by these topological indices. In this paper, we study the molecular topological properties of some special graphs. The indices ( A B C ) , ( A B C 4 ) , ( G A ) and ( G A 5 ) of these special graphs are computed.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030032

Authors: Chenkuan Li Kyle Clarkson

The goal of this paper is to investigate the following Abel’s integral equation of the second kind: y ( t ) + λ Γ ( α ) ∫ 0 t ( t − τ ) α − 1 y ( τ ) d τ = f ( t ) , ( t &gt; 0 ) and its variants by fractional calculus. Applying Babenko’s approach and fractional integrals, we provide a general method for solving Abel’s integral equation and others with a demonstration of different types of examples by showing convergence of series. In particular, we extend this equation to a distributional space for any arbitrary α ∈ R by fractional operations of generalized functions for the first time and obtain several new and interesting results that cannot be realized in the classical sense or by the Laplace transform.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030031

Authors: Choonkil Park

Using the fixed point method, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of quasi-∗-multipliers on Banach ∗-algebras and unital C*-algebras, associated to bi-additive s-functional inequalities.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6030030

Authors: Choonkil Park

In this paper, we investigate C * -ternary biderivations and C * -ternary bihomomorphism in C * -ternary algebras, associated with bi-additive s-functional inequalities.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020029

Authors: Hsien-Chung Wu

We propose the so-called fuzzy semi-metric space in which the symmetric condition is not assumed to be satisfied. In this case, there are four kinds of triangle inequalities that should be considered. The purpose of this paper is to study the common coincidence points and common fixed points in the newly proposed fuzzy semi-metric spaces endowed with the so-called ⋈-triangle inequality. The other three different kinds of triangle inequalities will be the future research, since they cannot be similarly investigated as the case of ⋈-triangle inequality.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020028

Authors: Muhammad Akram Gulfam Shahzadi

Fuzzy graph theory is a conceptual framework to study and analyze the units that are intensely or frequently connected in a network. It is used to study the mathematical structures of pairwise relations among objects. An m-polar fuzzy (mF, for short) set is a useful notion in practice, which is used by researchers or modelings on real world problems that sometimes involve multi-agents, multi-attributes, multi-objects, multi-indexes and multi-polar information. In this paper, we apply the concept of mF sets to hypergraphs, and present the notions of regular mF hypergraphs and totally regular mF hypergraphs. We describe the certain properties of regular mF hypergraphs and totally regular mF hypergraphs. We discuss the novel applications of mF hypergraphs in decision-making problems. We also develop efficient algorithms to solve decision-making problems.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020027

Authors: Elaheh Mohammadzadeh Rajab Borzooei

In this paper, we introduce a new definition for nilpotent fuzzy subgroups, which is called the good nilpotent fuzzy subgroup or briefly g-nilpotent fuzzy subgroup. In fact, we prove that this definition is a good generalization of abstract nilpotent groups. For this, we show that a group G is nilpotent if and only if any fuzzy subgroup of G is a g-nilpotent fuzzy subgroup of G. In particular, we construct a nilpotent group via a g-nilpotent fuzzy subgroup. Finally, we characterize the elements of any maximal normal abelian subgroup by using a g-nilpotent fuzzy subgroup.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020026

Authors: Hayman Thabet Subhash Kendre Dimplekumar Chalishajar

We have found some errors in the caption of Figure 1 and Figure 2 in our paper [1], and thus would like to make the following corrections:[...]

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020025

Authors: Geno Kadwin Jacob M. S. Khan Choonkil Park Sungsik Yun

In this paper, the existence of fixed point for Pata type Zamfirescu mapping in a complete metric space is proved. Our result give existence of fixed point for a wider class of functions and also prove the existence of best proximity point to the result on “A fixed point theorem in metric spaces”, given by vittorino Pata.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020024

Authors: Angelo Luongo Daniele Zulli

The static problem for elastic shallow cables suspended at points at different levels under general vertical loads is addressed. The cases of both suspended and taut cables are considered. The funicular equation and the compatibility condition, well known in literature, are here shortly re-derived, and the commonly accepted simplified hypotheses are recalled. Furthermore, with the aim of obtaining simple asymptotic expressions with a desired degree of accuracy, a perturbation method is designed, using the taut string solution as the generator system. The method is able to solve the static problem for any distributions of vertical loads and shows that the usual, simplified analysis is just the first step of the perturbation procedure proposed here.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020023

Authors: Timothy Sands Jae Kim Brij Agrawal

This manuscript reveals both the full experimental and methodical details of a most-recent patent that demonstrates a much-desired goal of rotational maneuvers via angular exchange momentum, namely extremely high torque without mathematical singularity and accompanying loss of attitude control while the angular momentum trajectory resides in the mathematical singularity. The paper briefly reviews the most recent literature, and then gives theoretical development for implementing the new control methods described in the patent to compute a non-singular steering command to the angular momentum actuators. The theoretical developments are followed by computer simulations used to verify the theoretical computation methodology, and then laboratory experiments are used for validation on a free-floating hardware simulator. A typical 3/4 CMG array skewed at 54.73° yields 0.15H. Utilizing the proposed singularity penetration techniques, 3H momentum is achieved about yaw, 2H about roll, and 1H about pitch representing performance increases of 1900%, 1233%, and 566% respectfully.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020022

Authors: Mohammad Maleki V. S. Vaezpour Reza Saadati

In this paper, we prove the generalized nonlinear stability of the first and second of the following ρ -functional equations, G ( | a | Δ A * | b | ) Δ B * G ( | a | Δ A * * | b | ) − G ( | a | ) Δ B * * G ( | b | ) = ρ ( 2 G | a | Δ A * | b | 2 Δ B * G | a | Δ A * * | b | 2 − G ( | a | ) Δ B * * G ( | b | ) ) , and 2 G | a | Δ A * | b | 2 Δ B * G | a | Δ A * * | b | 2 − G ( | a | ) Δ B * * G ( | b | ) = ρ G ( | a | Δ A * | b | ) Δ B * G ( | a | Δ A * * | b | ) − G ( | a | ) Δ B * * G ( | b | ) in latticetic random Banach lattice spaces, where ρ is a fixed real or complex number with ρ ≠ 1 .

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020021

Authors: Zhuang-Dan Guan

In an earlier paper, we gave a proof of the conjecture of the pinching of the bisectional curvature mentioned in those two papers of Hong et al. of 1988 and 2011. Moreover, we proved that any compact Kähler–Einstein surface M is a quotient of the complex two-dimensional unit ball or the complex two-dimensional plane if (1) M has a nonpositive Einstein constant, and (2) at each point, the average holomorphic sectional curvature is closer to the minimal than to the maximal. Following Siu and Yang, we used a minimal holomorphic sectional curvature direction argument, which made it easier for the experts in this direction to understand our proof. On this note, we use a maximal holomorphic sectional curvature direction argument, which is shorter and easier for the readers who are new in this direction.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020020

Authors: Theodore Andronikos Alla Sirokofskich Kalliopi Kastampolidou Magdalini Varvouzou Konstantinos Giannakis Alexander Singh

The meticulous study of finite automata has produced many important and useful results. Automata are simple yet efficient finite state machines that can be utilized in a plethora of situations. It comes, therefore, as no surprise that they have been used in classic game theory in order to model players and their actions. Game theory has recently been influenced by ideas from the field of quantum computation. As a result, quantum versions of classic games have already been introduced and studied. The P Q penny flip game is a famous quantum game introduced by Meyer in 1999. In this paper, we investigate all possible finite games that can be played between the two players Q and Picard of the original P Q game. For this purpose, we establish a rigorous connection between finite automata and the P Q game along with all its possible variations. Starting from the automaton that corresponds to the original game, we construct more elaborate automata for certain extensions of the game, before finally presenting a semiautomaton that captures the intrinsic behavior of all possible variants of the P Q game. What this means is that, from the semiautomaton in question, by setting appropriate initial and accepting states, one can construct deterministic automata able to capture every possible finite game that can be played between the two players Q and Picard. Moreover, we introduce the new concepts of a winning automaton and complete automaton for either player.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020019

Authors: Lubna Inearat Naji Qatanani

In this article, three numerical iterative schemes, namely: Jacobi, Gauss–Seidel and Successive over-relaxation (SOR) have been proposed to solve a fuzzy system of linear equations (FSLEs). The convergence properties of these iterative schemes have been discussed. To display the validity of these iterative schemes, an illustrative example with known exact solution is considered. Numerical results show that the SOR iterative method with ω = 1.3 provides more efficient results in comparison with other iterative techniques.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020018

Authors: Nabeela Ishfaq Sidra Sayed Muhammad Akram Florentin Smarandache

Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS) theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020017

Authors: Guoxing Lin

Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments can be used to measure anomalous diffusion in many polymer or biological systems. However, it is still complicated to analyze PFG anomalous diffusion, particularly the finite gradient pulse width (FGPW) effect. In practical applications, the FGPW effect may not be neglected, such as in clinical diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, two significantly different methods are proposed to analyze PFG anomalous diffusion: the effective phase-shift diffusion equation (EPSDE) method and a method based on observing the signal intensity at the origin. The EPSDE method describes the phase evolution in virtual phase space, while the method to observe the signal intensity at the origin describes the magnetization evolution in real space. However, these two approaches give the same general PFG signal attenuation including the FGPW effect, which can be numerically evaluated by a direct integration method. The direct integration method is fast and without overflow. It is a convenient numerical evaluation method for Mittag-Leffler function-type PFG signal attenuation. The methods here provide a clear view of spin evolution under a field gradient, and their results will help the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020016

Authors: Roberto Garrappa

Solving differential equations of fractional (i.e., non-integer) order in an accurate, reliable and efficient way is much more difficult than in the standard integer-order case; moreover, the majority of the computational tools do not provide built-in functions for this kind of problem. In this paper, we review two of the most effective families of numerical methods for fractional-order problems, and we discuss some of the major computational issues such as the efficient treatment of the persistent memory term and the solution of the nonlinear systems involved in implicit methods. We present therefore a set of MATLAB routines specifically devised for solving three families of fractional-order problems: fractional differential equations (FDEs) (also for the non-scalar case), multi-order systems (MOSs) of FDEs and multi-term FDEs (also for the non-scalar case); some examples are provided to illustrate the use of the routines.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6020015

Authors: Ivano Colombaro Andrea Giusti Silvia Vitali

In this paper, after a brief review of the physical notion of quality factor in viscoelasticity, we present a complete discussion of the attenuation processes emerging in the Maxwell–Prabhakar model, recently developed by Giusti and Colombaro. Then, taking profit of some illuminating plots, we discuss some potential connections between the presented model and the modern mathematical modelling of seismic processes.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010014

Authors: Mathematics Editorial Office

Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Mathematics maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...]

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010013

Authors: Tucker Carrington

I review some computational methods for calculating vibrational spectra. They all use iterative eigensolvers to compute eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian matrix by evaluating matrix-vector products (MVPs). A direct-product basis can be used for molecules with five or fewer atoms. This is done by exploiting the structure of the basis and the structure of a direct product quadrature grid. I outline three methods that can be used for molecules with more than five atoms. The first uses contracted basis functions and an intermediate (F) matrix. The second uses Smolyak quadrature and a pruned basis. The third uses a tensor rank reduction scheme.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010012

Authors: Vladimir Zakharchenko Ilya Kovalenko

A significant reduction in the time required to obtain an estimate of the mean frequency of the spectrum of Doppler signals when seeking to measure the instantaneous velocity of dangerous near-Earth cosmic objects (NEO) is an important task being developed to counter the threat from asteroids. Spectral analysis methods have shown that the coordinate of the centroid of the Doppler signal spectrum can be found by using operations in the time domain without spectral processing. At the same time, an increase in the speed of resolving the algorithm for estimating the mean frequency of the spectrum is achieved by using fractional differentiation without spectral processing. Thus, an accurate estimate of location of the centroid for the spectrum of Doppler signals can be obtained in the time domain as the signal arrives. This paper considers the implementation of a fractional-differentiating filter of the order of ½ by a set of automation astatic transfer elements, which greatly simplifies practical implementation. Real technical devices have the ultimate time delay, albeit small in comparison with the duration of the signal. As a result, the real filter will process the signal with some error. In accordance with this, this paper introduces and uses the concept of a “pre-derivative” of ½ of magnitude. An optimal algorithm for realizing the structure of the filter is proposed based on the criterion of minimum mean square error. Relations are obtained for the quadrature coefficients that determine the structure of the filter.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010011

Authors: Young Jun Seok-Zun Song Seon Kim

As a generalization of interval-valued fuzzy sets and fuzzy sets, the concept of hyperfuzzy sets was introduced by Ghosh and Samanta in the paper [J. Ghosh and T.K. Samanta, Hyperfuzzy sets and hyperfuzzy group, Int. J. Advanced Sci Tech. 41 (2012), 27–37]. The aim of this manuscript is to introduce the length-fuzzy set and apply it to B C K / B C I -algebras. The notion of length-fuzzy subalgebras in B C K / B C I -algebras is introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a length-fuzzy subalgebra are discussed. Relations between length-fuzzy subalgebras and hyperfuzzy subalgebras are established.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010010

Authors: Senada Kalabušić Mehmed Nurkanović Zehra Nurkanović

We investigate global dynamics of the following second order rational difference equation x n + 1 = x n x n − 1 + α x n + β x n − 1 a x n x n − 1 + b x n − 1 , where the parameters α , β , a , b are positive real numbers and initial conditions x − 1 and x 0 are arbitrary positive real numbers. The map associated to the right-hand side of this equation is always decreasing in the second variable and can be either increasing or decreasing in the first variable depending on the corresponding parametric space. In most cases, we prove that local asymptotic stability of the unique equilibrium point implies global asymptotic stability.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010009

Authors: José Fontanari

Humans are the ultimate ecosystem engineers who have profoundly transformed the world’s landscapes in order to enhance their survival. Somewhat paradoxically, however, sometimes the unforeseen effect of this ecosystem engineering is the very collapse of the population it intended to protect. Here we use a spatial version of a standard population dynamics model of ecosystem engineers to study the colonization of unexplored virgin territories by a small settlement of engineers. We find that during the expansion phase the population density reaches values much higher than those the environment can support in the equilibrium situation. When the colonization front reaches the boundary of the available space, the population density plunges sharply and attains its equilibrium value. The collapse takes place without warning and happens just after the population reaches its peak number. We conclude that overpopulation and the consequent collapse of an expanding population of ecosystem engineers is a natural consequence of the nonlinear feedback between the population and environment variables.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010008

Authors: Francesco Mainardi

In this note, we show how an initial value problem for a relaxation process governed by a differential equation of a non-integer order with a constant coefficient may be equivalent to that of a differential equation of the first order with a varying coefficient. This equivalence is shown for the simple fractional relaxation equation that points out the relevance of the Mittag–Leffler function in fractional calculus. This simple argument may lead to the equivalence of more general processes governed by evolution equations of fractional order with constant coefficients to processes governed by differential equations of integer order but with varying coefficients. Our main motivation is to solicit the researchers to extend this approach to other areas of applied science in order to have a deeper knowledge of certain phenomena, both deterministic and stochastic ones, investigated nowadays with the techniques of the fractional calculus.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010007

Authors: Marina Popolizio

Multiterm fractional differential equations (MTFDEs) nowadays represent a widely used tool to model many important processes, particularly for multirate systems. Their numerical solution is then a compelling subject that deserves great attention, not least because of the difficulties to apply general purpose methods for fractional differential equations (FDEs) to this case. In this paper, we first transform the MTFDEs into equivalent systems of FDEs, as done by Diethelm and Ford; in this way, the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag–Leffler (ML) functions evaluated at matrix arguments. We then propose to compute it by resorting to the matrix approach proposed by Garrappa and Popolizio. Several numerical tests are presented that clearly show that this matrix approach is very accurate and fast, also in comparison with other numerical methods.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010006

Authors: Fausto Ferrari

In this paper, we recall the contribution given by Hermann Weyl and André Marchaud to the notion of fractional derivative. In addition, we discuss some relationships between the fractional Laplace operator and Marchaud derivative in the perspective to generalize these objects to different fields of the mathematics.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010005

Authors: Bingqing Lu Yong Zhang Donald Reeves HongGuang Sun Chunmiao Zheng

Fractional calculus provides efficient physical models to quantify non-Fickian dynamics broadly observed within the Earth system. The potential advantages of using fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs) for real-world problems are often limited by the current lack of understanding of how earth system properties influence observed non-Fickian dynamics. This study explores non-Fickian dynamics for pollutant transport in field-scale discrete fracture networks (DFNs), by investigating how fracture and rock matrix properties influence the leading and tailing edges of pollutant breakthrough curves (BTCs). Fractured reservoirs exhibit erratic internal structures and multi-scale heterogeneity, resulting in complex non-Fickian dynamics. A Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate pollutant transport through DFNs with a systematic variation of system properties, and the resultant non-Fickian transport is upscaled using a tempered-stable fractional in time advection–dispersion equation. Numerical results serve as a basis for determining both qualitative and quantitative relationships between BTC characteristics and model parameters, in addition to the impacts of fracture density, orientation, and rock matrix permeability on non-Fickian dynamics. The observed impacts of medium heterogeneity on tracer transport at late times tend to enhance the applicability of fPDEs that may be parameterized using measurable fracture–matrix characteristics.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010004

Authors: Roberto Garra Enzo Orsingher Federico Polito

In this paper, we show several connections between special functions arising from generalized Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (COM-Poisson) type statistical distributions and integro-differential equations with varying coefficients involving Hadamard-type operators. New analytical results are obtained, showing the particular role of Hadamard-type derivatives in connection with a recently introduced generalization of the Le Roy function. We are also able to prove a general connection between fractional hyper-Bessel-type equations involving Hadamard operators and Le Roy functions.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010003

Authors: Sergei Rogosin Maryna Dubatovskaya

In this survey paper, we analyze two constructions of fractional derivatives proposed by Aleksey Letnikov (1837–1888) and by André Marchaud (1887–1973), respectively. These derivatives play very important roles in Fractional Calculus and its applications.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010002

Authors: Khadidja Nisse Lamine Nisse

In the present work, we deal with nonlinear fractional differential equations with “maxima” and deviating arguments. The nonlinear part of the problem under consideration depends on the maximum values of the unknown function taken in time-dependent intervals. Proceeding by an iterative approach, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of the solution, in a context that does not fit within the framework of fixed point theory methods for the self-mappings, frequently used in the study of such problems. An example illustrating our main result is also given.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6010001

Authors: Muhammed Syam

In this paper, we investigate a numerical solution of Lienard’s equation. The residual power series (RPS) method is implemented to find an approximate solution to this problem. The proposed method is a combination of the fractional Taylor series and the residual functions. Numerical and theoretical results are presented.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040084

Authors: Dan-Marian Joiţa Lorentz Jäntschi

The characteristic polynomial (ChP) has found its use in the characterization of chemical compounds since Hückel’s method of molecular orbitals. In order to discriminate the atoms of different elements and different bonds, an extension of the classical definition is required. The extending characteristic polynomial (EChP) family of structural descriptors is introduced in this article. Distinguishable atoms and bonds in the context of chemical structures are considered in the creation of the family of descriptors. The extension finds its uses in problems requiring discrimination among same-patterned graph representations of molecules as well as in problems involving relations between the structure and the properties of chemical compounds. The ability of the EChP to explain two properties, namely, area and volume, is analyzed on a sample of C20 fullerene congeners. The results have shown that the EChP-selected descriptors well explain the properties.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040083

Authors: Sergey V. Ludkowski

The article is devoted to reflexive Müntz spaces M Λ , p of L p functions with 1 &lt; p &lt; ∞ . The Stieltjes transform and a potential transform are studied for these spaces. Isomorphisms of the reflexive Müntz spaces fulfilling the gap and Müntz conditions are investigated.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040082

Authors: Hajime Matsui

In this study, we consider codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals. In the first half of the study, we deal with arbitrary Euclidean domains. We show that the product of generator matrices of codes over the rings mod a and mod b produces generator matrices of all codes over the ring mod a b , i.e., this correspondence is onto. Moreover, we show that if a and b are coprime, then this correspondence is one-to-one, i.e., there exist unique codes over the rings mod a and mod b that produce any given code over the ring mod a b through the product of their generator matrices. In the second half of the study, we focus on the typical Euclidean domains such as the rational integer ring, one-variable polynomial rings, rings of Gaussian and Eisenstein integers, p-adic integer rings and rings of one-variable formal power series. We define the reduced generator matrices of codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals and show their uniqueness. Finally, we apply our theory of reduced generator matrices to the Hecke rings of matrices over these Euclidean domains.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040080

Authors: Ibrahim ELmojtaba Santanu Biswas Joydev Chattopadhyay

In this paper, we propose and analyze a mathematical model for the dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis with seasonality. Our results show that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable under certain conditions when R 0 , the basic reproduction number, is less than unity. When R 0 &gt; 1 and under some conditions, then our system has a unique positive ω -periodic solution that is globally asymptotically stable. Applying two controls, vaccination and treatment, to our model forces the system to be non-periodic, and all fractions of infected populations settle on a very low level.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040081

Authors: Seok-Zun Song Seon Kim Young Jun

The notions of hyperfuzzy ideals in B C K / B C I -algebras are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of hyperfuzzy ideals are established. Relations between hyperfuzzy ideals and hyperfuzzy subalgebras are discussed. Conditions for hyperfuzzy subalgebras to be hyperfuzzy ideals are provided.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040078

Authors: Soon-Mo Jung Yang-Hi Lee

We prove the generalized Hyers–Ulam stability of a mean value type functional equation f ( x ) − g ( y ) = ( x − y ) h ( x + y ) by applying a method originated from fixed point theory.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040079

Authors: Henrique da Cruz Ilda Rodrigues Rogério Serôdio Alberto Simões José Velhinho

We describe subspaces of generalized Hessenberg matrices where the determinant is convertible into the permanent by affixing ± signs. An explicit characterization of convertible Hessenberg-type matrices is presented. We conclude that convertible matrices with the maximum number of nonzero entries can be reduced to a basic set.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040077

Authors: Mir Sajjad Hashemi Ali Akgül Mustafa Inc Idrees Sedeeq Mustafa Dumitru Baleanu

We apply the reproducing kernel method and group preserving scheme for investigating the Lane–Emden equation. The reproducing kernel method is implemented by the useful reproducing kernel functions and the numerical approximations are given. These approximations demonstrate the preciseness of the investigated techniques.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040076

Authors: Yuri Luchko

In this paper, some new properties of the fundamental solution to the multi-dimensional space- and time-fractional diffusion-wave equation are deduced. We start with the Mellin-Barnes representation of the fundamental solution that was derived in the previous publications of the author. The Mellin-Barnes integral is used to obtain two new representations of the fundamental solution in the form of the Mellin convolution of the special functions of the Wright type. Moreover, some new closed-form formulas for particular cases of the fundamental solution are derived. In particular, we solve the open problem of the representation of the fundamental solution to the two-dimensional neutral-fractional diffusion-wave equation in terms of the known special functions.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040074

Authors: Ilwoo Cho

In this paper, we construct a free semicircular family induced by Z -many mutually-orthogonal projections, and construct Banach ∗-probability spaces containing the family, called the free filterizations. By acting a free filterization on fixed von Neumann algebras, we construct the corresponding Banach ∗-probability spaces, called affiliated free filterizations. We study free-probabilistic properties on such new structures, determined by both semicircularity and free-distributional data on von Neumann algebras. In particular, we study how the freeness on free filterizations, and embedded freeness conditions on fixed von Neumann algebras affect free-distributional data on affiliated free filterizations.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040075

Authors: Anatolij Prykarpatski Oksana Hentosh Yarema Prykarpatsky

The classical Lagrange-d’Alembert principle had a decisive influence on formation of modern analytical mechanics which culminated in modern Hamilton and Poisson mechanics. Being mainly interested in the geometric interpretation of this principle, we devoted our review to its deep relationships to modern Lie-algebraic aspects of the integrability theory of nonlinear heavenly type dynamical systems and its so called Lax-Sato counterpart. We have also analyzed old and recent investigations of the classical M. A. Buhl problem of describing compatible linear vector field equations, its general M.G. Pfeiffer and modern Lax-Sato type special solutions. Especially we analyzed the related Lie-algebraic structures and integrability properties of a very interesting class of nonlinear dynamical systems called the dispersionless heavenly type equations, which were initiated by Plebański and later analyzed in a series of articles. As effective tools the AKS-algebraic and related R -structure schemes are used to study the orbits of the corresponding co-adjoint actions, which are intimately related to the classical Lie-Poisson structures on them. It is demonstrated that their compatibility condition coincides with the corresponding heavenly type equations under consideration. It is also shown that all these equations originate in this way and can be represented as a Lax-Sato compatibility condition for specially constructed loop vector fields on the torus. Typical examples of such heavenly type equations, demonstrating in detail their integrability via the scheme devised herein, are presented.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040073

Authors: Marcello Artioli Giuseppe Dattoli Silvia Licciardi Simonetta Pagnutti

The high gain free electron laser (FEL) equation is a Volterra type integro-differential equation amenable for analytical solutions in a limited number of cases. In this note, a novel technique, based on an expansion employing a family of two variable Hermite polynomials, is shown to provide straightforward analytical solutions for cases hardly solvable with conventional means. The possibility of extending the method by the use of expansion using different polynomials (two variable Legendre like) expansion is also discussed.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040072

Authors: Firdous Shah Lokenath Debnath

In this study, a hybrid method based on coupling discrete wavelet transforms (DWTs) and artificial neural network (ANN) for yield spread forecasting is proposed. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) using five different wavelet families is applied to decompose the five different yield spreads constructed at shorter end, longer end, and policy relevant area of the yield curve to eliminate noise from them. The wavelet coefficients are then used as inputs into Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) ANN models to forecast the predictive power of each of these spreads for output growth. We find that the yield spreads constructed at the shorter end and policy relevant areas of the yield curve have a better predictive power to forecast the output growth, whereas the yield spreads, which are constructed at the longer end of the yield curve do not seem to have predictive information for output growth. These results provide the robustness to the earlier results.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040071

Authors: Pannawit Khamrot Manoj Siripitukdet

In this paper, we introduce a generalization of a bipolar fuzzy (BF) subsemigroup, namely, a ( α 1 , α 2 ; β 1 , β 2 ) -BF subsemigroup. The notions of ( α 1 , α 2 ; β 1 , β 2 ) -BF quasi(generalized bi-, bi-) ideals are discussed. Some inequalities of ( α 1 , α 2 ; β 1 , β 2 ) -BF quasi(generalized bi-, bi-) ideals are obtained. Furthermore, any regular semigroup is characterized in terms of generalized BF semigroups.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040070

Authors: Matthew Cooper Peter Heidlauf Timothy Sands

Nonlinear systems are typically linearized to permit linear feedback control design, but, in some systems, the nonlinearities are so strong that their performance is called chaotic, and linear control designs can be rendered ineffective. One famous example is the van der Pol equation of oscillatory circuits. This study investigates the control design for the forced van der Pol equation using simulations of various control designs for iterated initial conditions. The results of the study highlight that even optimal linear, time-invariant (LTI) control is unable to control the nonlinear van der Pol equation, but idealized nonlinear feedforward control performs quite well after an initial transient effect of the initial conditions. Perhaps the greatest strength of ideal nonlinear control is shown to be the simplicity of analysis. Merely equate coefficients order-of-differentiation insures trajectory tracking in steady-state (following dissipation of transient effects of initial conditions), meanwhile the solution of the time-invariant linear-quadratic optimal control problem with infinite time horizon is needed to reveal constant control gains for a linear-quadratic regulator. Since analytical development is so easy for ideal nonlinear control, this article focuses on numerical demonstrations of trajectory tracking error.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040069

Authors: Merlin C. Köhnke Horst Malchow

Semi-arid ecosystems made up of patterned vegetation, for instance, are thought to be highly sensitive. This highlights the importance of understanding the dynamics of the formation of vegetation patterns. The most renowned mathematical model describing such pattern formation consists of two partial differential equations and is often referred to as the Klausmeier model. This paper provides analytical and numerical investigations regarding the influence of different parameters, including the so-far not contemplated evaporation, on the long-term model results. Another focus is set on the influence of different initial conditions and on environmental noise, which has been added to the model. It is shown that patterning is beneficial for semi-arid ecosystems, that is, vegetation is present for a broader parameter range. Both parameter variability and environmental noise have only minor impacts on the model results. Increasing mortality has a high, nonlinear impact underlining the importance of further studies in order to gain a sufficient understanding allowing for suitable management strategies of this natural phenomenon.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040068

Authors: Ulrich Wulf Jan Kučera Hans Richter Manfred Horstmann Maciej Wiatr Jan Höntschel

One major concern of channel engineering in nanotransistors is the coupling of the conduction channel to the source/drain contacts. In a number of previous publications, we have developed a semiempirical quantum model in quantitative agreement with three series of experimental transistors. On the basis of this model, an overlap parameter 0 ≤ C ≤ 1 can be defined as a criterion for the quality of the contact-to-channel coupling: A high level of C means good matching between the wave functions in the source/drain and in the conduction channel associated with a low contact-to-channel reflection. We show that a high level of C leads to a high saturation current in the ON-state and a large slope of the transfer characteristic in the OFF-state. Furthermore, relevant for future device miniaturization, we analyze the contribution of the tunneling current to the total drain current. It is seen for a device with a gate length of 26 nm that for all gate voltages, the share of the tunneling current becomes small for small drain voltages. With increasing drain voltage, the contribution of the tunneling current grows considerably showing Fowler–Nordheim oscillations. In the ON-state, the classically allowed current remains dominant for large drain voltages. In the OFF-state, the tunneling current becomes dominant.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040067

Authors: Martin Bača Muhammad Irfan Joe Ryan Andrea Semaničová-Feňovčíková Dushyant Tanna

We study an edge irregular reflexive k-labelling for the generalized friendship graphs, also known as flowers (a symmetric collection of cycles meeting at a common vertex), and determine the exact value of the reflexive edge strength for several subfamilies of the generalized friendship graphs.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040065

Authors: Rainey Lyons Aghalaya Vatsala Ross Chiquet

With fractional differential equations (FDEs) rising in popularity and methods for solving them still being developed, approximations to solutions of fractional initial value problems (IVPs) have great applications in related fields. This paper proves an extension of Picard’s Iterative Existence and Uniqueness Theorem to Caputo fractional ordinary differential equations, when the nonhomogeneous term satisfies the usual Lipschitz’s condition. As an application of our method, we have provided several numerical examples.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040066

Authors: Trifce Sandev

We consider a generalized Langevin equation with regularized Prabhakar derivative operator. We analyze the mean square displacement, time-dependent diffusion coefficient and velocity autocorrelation function. We further introduce the so-called tempered regularized Prabhakar derivative and analyze the corresponding generalized Langevin equation with friction term represented through the tempered derivative. Various diffusive behaviors are observed. We show the importance of the three parameter Mittag-Leffler function in the description of anomalous diffusion in complex media. We also give analytical results related to the generalized Langevin equation for a harmonic oscillator with generalized friction. The normalized displacement correlation function shows different behaviors, such as monotonic and non-monotonic decay without zero-crossings, oscillation-like behavior without zero-crossings, critical behavior, and oscillation-like behavior with zero-crossings. These various behaviors appear due to the friction of the complex environment represented by the Mittag-Leffler and tempered Mittag-Leffler memory kernels. Depending on the values of the friction parameters in the system, either diffusion or oscillations dominate.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040064

Authors: Massimiliano Ferrara Bruno Pansera Francesco Strati

In this work, we aim to formalize the inception of representative bubbles giving the condition under which they may arise. We will find that representative bubbles may start at any time, depending on the definition of a behavioral component. This result is at odds with the theory of classic rational bubbles, which are those models that rely on the fulfillment of the transversality condition by which a bubble in a financial asset can arise just at its first trade. This means that a classic rational bubble (differently from our model) cannot follow a cycle since if a bubble exists, it will burst by definition and never arise again.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040063

Authors: Michael Machen Yong-Tao Zhang

Implicit integration factor (IIF) methods were developed for solving time-dependent stiff partial differential equations (PDEs) in literature. In [Jiang and Zhang, Journal of Computational Physics, 253 (2013) 368–388], IIF methods are designed to efficiently solve stiff nonlinear advection–diffusion–reaction (ADR) equations. The methods can be designed for an arbitrary order of accuracy. The stiffness of the system is resolved well, and large-time-step-size computations are achieved. To efficiently calculate large matrix exponentials, a Krylov subspace approximation is directly applied to the IIF methods. In this paper, we develop Krylov IIF methods for solving semilinear fourth-order PDEs. As a result of the stiff fourth-order spatial derivative operators, the fourth-order PDEs have much stricter constraints in time-step sizes than the second-order ADR equations. We analyze the truncation errors of the fully discretized schemes. Numerical examples of both scalar equations and systems in one and higher spatial dimensions are shown to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and stability of the methods. Large time-step sizes that are of the same order as the spatial grid sizes have been achieved in the simulations of the fourth-order PDEs.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040062

Authors: Tohru Morita Ken-ichi Sato

The particular solutions of inhomogeneous differential equations with polynomial coefficients in terms of the Green’s function are obtained in the framework of distribution theory. In particular, discussions are given on Kummer’s and the hypergeometric differential equation. Related discussions are given on the particular solution of differential equations with constant coefficients, by the Laplace transform.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040061

Authors: Michal Fečkan JinRong Wang

This paper studies fractional differential equations (FDEs) with mixed fractional derivatives. Existence, uniqueness, stability, and asymptotic results are derived.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040060

Authors: Muhammad Akram Muzzamal Sitara Florentin Smarandache

A bipolar single-valued neutrosophic (BSVN) graph structure is a generalization of a bipolar fuzzy graph. In this research paper, we present certain concepts of BSVN graph structures. We describe some operations on BSVN graph structures and elaborate on these with examples. Moreover, we investigate some related properties of these operations.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040058

Authors: Fidele Hategekimana Snehanshu Saha Anita Chaturvedi

Compartmental epidemic models are intriguing in the sense that the generic model may explain different kinds of infectious diseases with minor modifications. However, there may exist some ailments that may not fit the generic capsule. Amoebiasis is one such example where transmission through the population demands a more detailed and sophisticated approach, both mathematical and numerical. The manuscript engages in a deep analytical study of the compartmental epidemic model; susceptible-exposed-infectious-carrier-recovered-susceptible (SEICRS), formulated for Amoebiasis. We have shown that the model allows the single disease-free equilibrium (DFE) state if R 0 , the basic reproduction number, is less than unity and the unique endemic equilibrium (EE) state if R 0 is greater than unity. Furthermore, the basic reproduction number depends uniquely on the input parameters and constitutes a key threshold indicator to portray the general trends of the dynamics of Amoebiasis transmission. We have also shown that R 0 is highly sensitive to the changes in values of the direct transmission rate in contrast to the change in values of the rate of transfer from latent infection to the infectious state. Using the Routh–Hurwitz criterion and Lyapunov direct method, we have proven the conditions for the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium states to be locally and globally asymptotically stable. In other words, the conditions for Amoebiasis “die-out” and “infection propagation” are presented.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040059

Authors: Waheed Ahmed F. Zaman Khairul Saleh

Approximate symmetries of a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations are computed using two newly-developed methods. Invariant solutions associated with the approximate symmetries are constructed for both methods. Symmetries and solutions are compared through discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040057

Authors: Daniele Mortari

This study introduces a procedure to obtain all interpolating functions, y = f ( x ) , subject to linear constraints on the function and its derivatives defined at specified values. The paper first shows how to express these interpolating functions passing through a single point in three distinct ways: linear, additive, and rational. Then, using the additive formalism, interpolating functions with linear constraints on one, two, and n points are introduced as well as those satisfying relative constraints. In particular, for expressions passing through n points, a generalization of the Waring’s interpolation form is introduced. An alternative approach to derive additive constraint interpolating expressions is introduced requiring the inversion of a matrix with dimensions equally the number of constraints. Finally, continuous and discontinuous interpolating periodic functions passing through a set of points with specified periods are provided. This theory has already been applied to obtain least-squares solutions of initial and boundary value problems applied to nonhomogeneous linear differential equations with nonconstant coefficients.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040056

Authors: Marilena Crupi

Let S be a polynomial ring in n variables over a field K of any characteristic. Given a strongly stable submodule M of a finitely generated graded free S-module F, we propose a method for constructing a standard Borel-fixed submodule M ˜ of F so that the extremal Betti numbers of M, values as well as positions, are preserved by passing from M to M ˜ . As a result, we obtain a numerical characterization of all possible extremal Betti numbers of any standard Borel-fixed submodule of a finitely generated graded free S-module F.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040055

Authors: Jing Zhu

The paper contributes to stabilization problems of linear systems subject to time-varying delays. Drawing upon small gain criteria and robust analysis techniques, upper and lower bounds on the largest allowable time-varying delay are developed by using bilinear transformation and rational approximates. The results achieved are not only computationally efficient but also conceptually appealing. Furthermore, analytical expressions of the upper and lower bounds are derived for specific situations that demonstrate the dependence of those bounds on the unstable poles and nonminumum phase zeros of systems.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040054

Authors: Suranon Yensiri Ruth Skulkhu

The Radial Basis Function (RBF) method has been considered an important meshfree tool for numerical solutions of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). For various situations, RBF with infinitely differentiable functions can provide accurate results and more flexibility in the geometry of computation domains than traditional methods such as finite difference and finite element methods. However, RBF does not suit large scale problems, and, therefore, a combination of RBF and the finite difference (RBF-FD) method was proposed because of its own strengths not only on feasibility and computational cost, but also on solution accuracy. In this study, we try the RBF-FD method on elliptic PDEs and study the effect of it on such equations with different shape parameters. Most importantly, we study the solution accuracy after additional ghost node strategy, preconditioning strategy, regularization strategy, and floating point arithmetic strategy. We have found more satisfactory accurate solutions in most situations than those from global RBF, except in the preconditioning and regularization strategies.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040053

Authors: Yang-Hi Lee

In this paper, we prove the stability of the following functional equation ∑ i = 0 n n C i ( − 1 ) n − i f ( i x + y ) − n ! f ( x ) = 0 on a restricted domain by employing the direct method in the sense of Hyers.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040052

Authors: Alexander Varchenko

We consider the Gauss–Manin differential equations for hypergeometric integrals associated with a family of weighted arrangements of hyperplanes moving parallel to themselves. We reduce these equations modulo a prime integer p and construct polynomial solutions of the new differential equations as p-analogs of the initial hypergeometric integrals. In some cases, we interpret the p-analogs of the hypergeometric integrals as sums over points of hypersurfaces defined over the finite field Fp. This interpretation is similar to the classical interpretation by Yu. I. Manin of the number of points on an elliptic curve depending on a parameter as a solution of a Gauss hypergeometric differential equation. We discuss the associated Bethe ansatz.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040051

Authors: Bang-Yen Chen

The position vector field is the most elementary and natural geometric object on a Euclidean submanifold. The position vector field plays important roles in physics, in particular in mechanics. For instance, in any equation of motion, the position vector x (t) is usually the most sought-after quantity because the position vector field defines the motion of a particle (i.e., a point mass): its location relative to a given coordinate system at some time variable t. This article is a survey article. The purpose of this article is to survey recent results of Euclidean submanifolds associated with the tangential components of their position vector fields. In the last section, we present some interactions between torqued vector fields and Ricci solitons.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040050

Authors: André Erhardt

In this paper, we study weak solutions to the following nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation ∂ t u − div a ( x , t , ∇ u ) + λ ( | u | p ( x , t ) − 2 u ) = 0 in Ω T , where λ ≥ 0 and ∂ t u denote the partial derivative of u with respect to the time variable t, while ∇ u denotes the one with respect to the space variable x. Moreover, the vector-field a ( x , t , · ) satisfies certain nonstandard p ( x , t ) -growth and monotonicity conditions. In this manuscript, we establish the existence of a unique weak solution to the corresponding Dirichlet problem. Furthermore, we prove the stability of this solution, i.e., we show that two weak solutions with different initial values are controlled by these initial values.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040049

Authors: Adam Glick Antonio Mastroberardino

Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth that is estimated to kill over 600,000 people in the United States in 2017 according to the National Institute of Health. While there are several therapies to treat cancer, tumor resistance to these therapies is a concern. Drug therapies have been developed that attack proliferating endothelial cells instead of the tumor in an attempt to create a therapy that is resistant to resistance in contrast to other forms of treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this study, a two-compartment model in terms of differential equations is presented in order to determine the optimal protocol for the delivery of anti-angiogenesis therapy. Optimal control theory is applied to the model with a range of anti-angiogenesis doses to determine optimal doses to minimize tumor volume at the end of a two week treatment and minimize drug toxicity to the patient. Applying a continuous optimal control protocol to our model of angiogenesis and tumor cell growth shows promising results for tumor control while minimizing the toxicity to the patients. By investigating a variety of doses, we determine that the optimal angiogenesis inhibitor dose is in the range of 10–20 mg/kg. In this clinically useful range of doses, good tumor control is achieved for a two week treatment period. This work shows that varying the toxicity of the treatment to the patient will change the optimal dosing scheme but tumor control can still be achieved.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040048

Authors: Daniele Mortari

This study shows how to obtain least-squares solutions to initial value problems (IVPs), boundary value problems (BVPs), and multi-value problems (MVPs) for nonhomogeneous linear differential equations (DEs) with nonconstant coefficients of any order. However, without loss of generality, the approach has been applied to second-order DEs. The proposed method has two steps. The first step consists of writing a constrained expression, that has the DE constraints embedded. These kind of expressions are given in terms of a new unknown function, g ( t ) , and they satisfy the constraints, no matter what g ( t ) is. The second step consists of expressing g ( t ) as a linear combination of m independent known basis functions. Specifically, orthogonal polynomials are adopted for the basis functions. This choice requires rewriting the DE and the constraints in terms of a new independent variable, x ∈ [ − 1 , + 1 ] . The procedure leads to a set of linear equations in terms of the unknown coefficients of the basis functions that are then computed by least-squares. Numerical examples are provided to quantify the solutions’ accuracy for IVPs, BVPs and MVPs. In all the examples provided, the least-squares solution is obtained with machine error accuracy.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5040047

Authors: Hayman Thabet Subhash Kendre Dimplekumar Chalishajar

This paper introduces a new analytical technique (NAT) for solving a system of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (NFPDEs) in full general set. Moreover, the convergence and error analysis of the proposed technique is shown. The approximate solutions for a system of NFPDEs are easily obtained by means of Caputo fractional partial derivatives based on the properties of fractional calculus. However, analytical and numerical traveling wave solutions for some systems of nonlinear wave equations are successfully obtained to confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed technique. Several numerical results are presented in the format of tables and graphs to make a comparison with results previously obtained by other well-known methods.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030046

Authors: Timothy Sands

Electric vehicles have undergone a recent faddy trend in the United States and Europe, and several recent publications trumpet the continued rise of electric vehicles citing steadily-climbing monthly vehicle sales. The broad purpose of this study is to examine this optimism with some degree of mathematical rigor. Specifically, the methodology will use catastrophe theory to explore the possibility of a sudden, seemingly-unexplainable crash in vehicle sales. The study begins by defining optimal system equations that well-model the available sales data. Next, these optimal models are used to investigate the potential response to a slow dynamic acting on the relatively faster dynamic of the optimal system equations. Catastrophe theory indicates a potential sudden crash in sales when a slow dynamic is at-work. It is noteworthy that the prediction can be made even while sales are increasing.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030045

Authors: Raquel Caballero-Águila Aurora Hermoso-Carazo Josefa Linares-Pérez

In this paper, the information fusion estimation problem is investigated for a class of multisensor linear systems affected by different kinds of stochastic uncertainties, using both the distributed and the centralized fusion methodologies. It is assumed that the measured outputs are perturbed by one-step autocorrelated and cross-correlated additive noises, and also stochastic uncertainties caused by multiplicative noises and randomly missing measurements in the sensor outputs are considered. At each sampling time, every sensor output is sent to a local processor and, due to some kind of transmission failures, one-step correlated random delays may occur. Using only covariance information, without requiring the evolution model of the signal process, a local least-squares (LS) filter based on the measurements received from each sensor is designed by an innovation approach. All these local filters are then fused to generate an optimal distributed fusion filter by a matrix-weighted linear combination, using the LS optimality criterion. Moreover, a recursive algorithm for the centralized fusion filter is also proposed and the accuracy of the proposed estimators, which is measured by the estimation error covariances, is analyzed by a simulation example.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030044

Authors: José Velhinho

This short review is devoted to measures on infinite dimensional spaces. We start by discussing product measures and projective techniques. Special attention is paid to measures on linear spaces, and in particular to Gaussian measures. Transformation properties of measures are considered, as well as fundamental results concerning the support of the measure.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030043

Authors: Ruth Kellerhals

We study lattices with a non-compact fundamental domain of small volume in hyperbolic space H n . First, we identify the arithmetic lattices in Isom + H n of minimal covolume for even n up to 18. Then, we discuss the related problem in higher odd dimensions and provide solutions for n = 11 and n = 13 in terms of the rotation subgroup of certain Coxeter pyramid groups found by Tumarkin. The results depend on the work of Belolipetsky and Emery, as well as on the Euler characteristic computation for hyperbolic Coxeter polyhedra with few facets by means of the program CoxIter developed by Guglielmetti. This work complements the survey about hyperbolic orbifolds of minimal volume.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030042

Authors: Rahman Ullah Xiao-Min Li Faiz Faizullah Hong-Xun Yi Riaz Khan

This research concentrates on the analysis of meromorphic mappings. We derived several important results for value distribution of specific difference polynomials of meromorphic mappings, which generalize the work of Laine and Yang. In addition, we proved uniqueness theorems of meromorphic mappings. The difference polynomials of these functions have the same fixed points or share a nonzero value. This extends the research work of Qi, Yang and Liu, where they used the finite ordered meromorphic mappings.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030041

Authors: Jens Fischer

In this paper, we relate Poisson’s summation formula to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. They both express Fourier dualities within the space of tempered distributions and these dualities are also inverse of each other. While Poisson’s summation formula expresses a duality between discretization and periodization, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle expresses a duality between regularization and localization. We define regularization and localization on generalized functions and show that the Fourier transform of regular functions are local functions and, vice versa, the Fourier transform of local functions are regular functions.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030040

Authors: Feng Qi Bai-Ni Guo

In the paper, the authors survey integral representations of the Catalan numbers and the Catalan–Qi function, discuss equivalent relations between these integral representations, supply alternative and new proofs of several integral representations, collect applications of some integral representations, and present sums of several power series whose coefficients involve the Catalan numbers.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030039

Authors: Warisa Thangjai Suparat Niwitpong Sa-Aat Niwitpong

This paper proposes confidence intervals for a single mean and difference of two means of normal distributions with unknown coefficients of variation (CVs). The generalized confidence interval (GCI) approach and large sample (LS) approach were proposed to construct confidence intervals for the single normal mean with unknown CV. These confidence intervals were compared with existing confidence interval for the single normal mean based on the Student’s t-distribution (small sample size case) and the z-distribution (large sample size case). Furthermore, the confidence intervals for the difference between two normal means with unknown CVs were constructed based on the GCI approach, the method of variance estimates recovery (MOVER) approach and the LS approach and then compared with the Welch–Satterthwaite (WS) approach. The coverage probability and average length of the proposed confidence intervals were evaluated via Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated that the GCIs for the single normal mean and the difference of two normal means with unknown CVs are better than the other confidence intervals. Finally, three datasets are given to illustrate the proposed confidence intervals.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030038

Authors: Hananeh Nojavan Saeid Abbasbandy Tofigh Allahviranloo

This study aimed at investigating a local radial basis function collocation method (LRBFCM) in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. This method was, in fact, a meshless one which applied the local sub-clusters of domain nodes for the approximation of the arbitrary field. For time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs), it would be changed to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Here, we intended to decrease the error through utilizing variable shape parameter (VSP) strategies. This method was an appropriate way to solve the two-dimensional nonlinear coupled Burgers’ equations comprised of Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions. Numerical examples indicated that the variable shape parameter strategies were more efficient than constant ones for various values of the Reynolds number.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030036

Authors: Evelina Viada

In this article, we show how to use the first and second Minkowski Theorems and some Diophantine geometry to bound explicitly the height of the points of rank N - 1 on transverse curves in E N , where E is an elliptic curve without Complex Multiplication (CM). We then apply our result to give a method for finding the rational points on such curves, when E has Q -rank ≤ N - 1 . We also give some explicit examples. This result generalises from rank 1 to rank N - 1 previous results of S. Checcoli, F. Veneziano and the author.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030037

Authors: Rémy Tuyéras

The contribution of this article is quadruple. It (1) unifies various schemes of premodels/models including situations such as presheaves/sheaves, sheaves/flabby sheaves, prespectra/ Ω -spectra, simplicial topological spaces/(complete) Segal spaces, pre-localised rings/localised rings, functors in categories/strong stacks and, to some extent, functors from a limit sketch to a model category versus the homotopical models for the limit sketch; (2) provides a general construction from the premodels to the models; (3) proposes technics that allow one to assess the nature of the universal properties associated with this construction; (4) shows that the obtained localisation admits a particular presentation, which organises the structural and relational information into bundles of data. This presentation is obtained via a process called an elimination of quotients and its aim is to facilitate the handling of the relational information appearing in the construction of higher dimensional objects such as weak ( ω , n ) -categories, weak ω -groupoids and higher moduli stacks.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5030035

Authors: Sergey Ludkowski

In this article, Müntz spaces M Λ , C of continuous functions supplied with the absolute maximum norm are considered. An existence of Schauder bases in Müntz spaces M Λ , C is investigated. Moreover, Fourier series approximation of functions in Müntz spaces M Λ , C is studied.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5020034

Authors: Shadi Al-Omari Fiazuddin Zaman Hassan Azad

Lie symmetries and their Lie group transformations for a class of Timoshenko systems are presented. The class considered is the class of nonlinear Timoshenko systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). An optimal system of one-dimensional sub-algebras of the corresponding Lie algebra is derived. All possible invariant variables of the optimal system are obtained. The corresponding reduced systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are also provided. All possible non-similar invariant conditions prescribed on invariant surfaces under symmetry transformations are given. As an application, explicit solutions of the system are given where the beam is hinged at one end and free at the other end.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5020033

Authors: Din Prathumwan Wannika Sawangtong Panumart Sawangtong

The asset flow differential equation (AFDE) is the mathematical model that plays an essential role for planning to predict the financial behavior in the market. In this paper, we introduce the fractional asset flow differential equations (FAFDEs) based on the Liouville-Caputo derivative. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution for the FAFDEs. Furthermore, the stability analysis of the model is investigated and the numerical simulation is accordingly performed to support the proposed model.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5020032

Authors: Dagmar Markechová Peter Vrábel Beáta Stehlíková

In this paper, we have proved a metrization theorem that gives the sufficient conditions for a uniform IP-loop X to be metrizable by a left-invariant metric. It is shown that by consideration of topological IP-loop dual to X we obtain an analogical theorem for the case of the right-invariant metric.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5020031

Authors: Weimin Wang Yuqiang Feng Yuanyuan Wang

In this paper, some nonlinear Gronwall–Bellman type inequalities are established. Then, the obtained results are applied to study the Hyers–Ulam stability of a fractional differential equation and the boundedness of solutions to an integral equation, respectively.

]]>Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math5020030

Authors: Muhammad Khan Akbar Azam Nayyar Mehmood

In this article the coincidence points of a self map and a sequence of multivalued maps are found in the settings of complete metric space endowed with a graph. A novel result of Asrifa and Vetrivel is generalized and as an application we obtain an existence theorem for a special type of fractional integral equation. Moreover, we establish a result on the convergence of successive approximation of a system of Bernstein operators on a Banach space.

]]>