Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus
Previous Article in Journal
Selective Induction of Cancer Cell Death by Targeted Granzyme B
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization of a Single Chain Fv Antibody that Reacts with Free Morphine
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antibodies 2013, 2(1), 152-167; doi:10.3390/antib2010152

Selection and Characterization of Single Domain Antibodies Specific for Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

Naval Research Laboratory, Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Washington, DC 20375, USA
Nova Research Inc., Alexandria, VA 22308, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [844 KB, uploaded 15 March 2013]   |  


To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to construct a phage display library from which single domain antibodies (sdAbs) targeting each of the proteins were isolated. Unique sdAbs exhibiting nanomolar or better affinities for the recombinant proteins were obtained and most of the isolated sdAbs retained their ability to bind antigen after cycles of heating as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a direct ELISA; the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis spores and not to other Bacillus species. Additionally, SODA1 and p5303 binding sdAbs detected spores in sandwich assays serving as both captures and tracers. Used in combination, sdAbs targeting B. anthracis proteins could be integrated into emerging biosensors to improve specificity in multiplex assays. View Full-Text
Keywords: single domain antibodies; Bacillus anthracis; phage display; biopanning; MAGPIX single domain antibodies; Bacillus anthracis; phage display; biopanning; MAGPIX

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Walper, S.A.; Lee, P.A.B.; Anderson, G.P.; Goldman, E.R. Selection and Characterization of Single Domain Antibodies Specific for Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins. Antibodies 2013, 2, 152-167.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Antibodies EISSN 2073-4468 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top