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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pyranose and Spacer Arm Structures on Phloem Mobility and Insecticidal Activity of New Tralopyril Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1058; doi:10.3390/molecules22071058 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Six new conjugates were designed and synthesized by introducing glucose, methyl glucuronate or glucuronic acid moieties on tralopyril. Phytotoxicity and phloem mobility results demonstrated that the introduction of glucose, methyl glucuronate or glucuronic acid moieties can simultaneously solve the tough phytotoxicity problem and
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Six new conjugates were designed and synthesized by introducing glucose, methyl glucuronate or glucuronic acid moieties on tralopyril. Phytotoxicity and phloem mobility results demonstrated that the introduction of glucose, methyl glucuronate or glucuronic acid moieties can simultaneously solve the tough phytotoxicity problem and phloem mobility transformation of tralopyril. Conjugates 12 and 18 containing the glucuronic acid moiety exhibited higher phloem mobility than conjugates 9, 11, 15 and 17. Conjugates 15, 17 and 18 with methoxymethyl groups on the tralopyril pyrrole nitrogen atom showed activity against Plutella xylostella, while conjugates 9, 11 and 12 with a methene group on the pyrrole N showed no activity. Cabbage roots were incubated in a buffered solution containing conjugates 15, 17 and 18 at 4 mM for 72 h. Only 18 showed systemic insecticidal activity with 100% mortalityagainst P. xylostella, while 15 and 17 showed lower activity andchlorfenapyr showed no activity. The glucuronic acid promoiety imparted more phloem mobility to tralopyril than glucose and methyl glucuronate. The methoxymethyl group bond on the tralopyril skeleton was the key factor in determining the insecticidal activity of the conjugates. A promising systemic proinsecticide containing glucuronic acid and tralopyril moieties was proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1059; doi:10.3390/molecules22071059 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion
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The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit (Q2) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol (N = 3386 test molecules) for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol (N = 1791) for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol (N = 373) for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K (N = 2637) for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K (N = 2643) for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.6066. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Auricular Signals and the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 45; doi:10.3390/medicines4030045 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Objective: This study aims to determine the association between auricular signals and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A case-control study with an equal number of cases and controls matched by age group and gender was conducted. A total of 204
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Objective: This study aims to determine the association between auricular signals and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A case-control study with an equal number of cases and controls matched by age group and gender was conducted. A total of 204 participants were recruited. Patients were verified as having MS based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Auricular assessment was conducted in the following sequence: visual inspection, electrical skin resistance test (ESRT), and pressure pain test (PPT). Results: MS+ patients tend to have much more oily auricle complexion than the controls. The ‘endocrine’ (right) of the participants with MS indicated a significantly higher electrical conductivity compared to that of the controls. The MS group participants experienced significant tenderness on the ‘heart’ and ‘endocrine’ acupoints. A number of auricular signals were also associated with the risk factors of MS, including age, gender, smoking status, family history of diabetes, and comorbid illnesses. Both the ‘heart’ and ‘endocrine’ acupoints showed the highest sensitivity to tenderness (60.8%), followed by the ‘endocrine’ (59.8%) and ‘pancreas and gallbladder’ (55.9%). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that electrical conductivity and tenderness of a number of auricular points, including the ‘heart’, ‘pancreas and gall bladder’, and ‘endocrine’, are associated with MS and its risk factors. Further investigations with a larger sample size could be conducted to verify the value of these auricular signals on MS risk prediction so that this method can be used as an early screening method for the population with a high MS risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of a Solar-Driven Trigeneration System with Nanofluid-Based Parabolic Trough Collectors
Energies 2017, 10(7), 848; doi:10.3390/en10070848 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The objective of this work was to optimize and to evaluate a solar-driven trigeneration system which operates with nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. The trigeneration system includes an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an absorption heat pump operating with LiBr-H2O which is
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The objective of this work was to optimize and to evaluate a solar-driven trigeneration system which operates with nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. The trigeneration system includes an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an absorption heat pump operating with LiBr-H2O which is powered by the rejected heat of the ORC. Toluene, n-octane, Octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM) and cyclohexane are the examined working fluids in the ORC. The use of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the Syltherm 800 (base fluid) is investigated in the solar field loop. The analysis is performed with Engineering Equation Solver (EES) under steady state conditions in order to give the emphasis in the exergetic optimization of the system. Except for the different working fluid investigation, the system is optimized by examining three basic operating parameters in all the cases. The pressure in the turbine inlet, the temperature in the ORC condenser and the nanofluid concentration are the optimization variables. According to the final results, the combination of toluene in the ORC with the CuO nanofluid is the optimum choice. The global maximum exergetic efficiency is 24.66% with pressure ratio is equal to 0.7605, heat rejection temperature 113.7 °C and CuO concentration 4.35%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1061; doi:10.3390/molecules22071061 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline)
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Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of a Modular Design of Wind Tower with Wetted Surfaces
Energies 2017, 10(7), 845; doi:10.3390/en10070845 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wind towers or wind catchers, as passive cooling systems, can provide natural ventilation in buildings located in hot, arid regions. These natural cooling systems can provide thermal comfort for the building inhabitants throughout the warm months. In this paper, a modular design of
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Wind towers or wind catchers, as passive cooling systems, can provide natural ventilation in buildings located in hot, arid regions. These natural cooling systems can provide thermal comfort for the building inhabitants throughout the warm months. In this paper, a modular design of a wind tower is introduced. The design, called a modular wind tower with wetted surfaces, was investigated experimentally and analytically. To determine the performance of the wind tower, air temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air velocity were measured at different points. Measurements were carried out when the wind speed was zero. The experimental results were compared with the analytical ones. The results illustrated that the modular wind tower can decrease the air temperature significantly and increase the relative humidity of airflow into the building. The average differences for air temperature and air relative humidity between ambient air and air exiting from the wind tower were approximately 10 °C and 40%, respectively. The main advantage of the proposed wind tower is that it is a modular design that can reduce the cost of wind tower construction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sewage-Borne Ammonium at a River Bank Filtration Site in Central Delhi, India: Simplified Flow and Reactive Transport Modeling to Support Decision-Making about Water Management Strategies
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 48; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030048 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In the Indian metropolis of Delhi, the Yamuna River is highly influenced by sewage water, which has led to elevated ammonium (NH4+) concentrations up to 20 mg/L in the river water during 2012–2013. Large drinking water production wells located in
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In the Indian metropolis of Delhi, the Yamuna River is highly influenced by sewage water, which has led to elevated ammonium (NH4+) concentrations up to 20 mg/L in the river water during 2012–2013. Large drinking water production wells located in the alluvial aquifer draw high shares of bank filtrate. Due to the infiltrating river water, the raw water NH4+ concentrations in some wells exceed the threshold value of 0.5 mg/L ammonia-N of the Indian drinking water specifications, making the water unfit for human consumption without prior treatment. However, to meet the city’s growing water demand, it might be advantageous to consider the long-term use of the well field. This requires the development of an adapted post-treatment unit in concert with an adjusted well field management. To better understand the groundwater dynamics and contamination and decontamination times at the well field, a theoretical modeling study has been conducted. The results of 2D numerical modeling reveal that the groundwater flux beneath the river is negligible because of the aquifer and river geometry, indicating that infiltrating river water is not diluted by the ambient groundwater. Increasing the water abstraction in the wells closest to the river would result in a larger share of bank filtrate and a decreasing groundwater table decline. Simplified 1D reactive transport models set up for a distance of 500 m (transect from the riverbank to the first production well) showed that the NH4+ contamination will prevail for the coming decades. Different lithological units of the aquifer (sand and kankar—a sediment containing calcareous nodules) have a strong influence on the respective contamination and decontamination periods, as the retardation of NH4+ is higher in the kankar than in the sand layer. Although this simplified approach does not allow for a quantification of processes, it can support decision-making about a possible future use of the well field and point to associated research needs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Design of Radar Corner Reflectors for Deformation Monitoring in Multi-Frequency InSAR
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(7), 648; doi:10.3390/rs9070648 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Trihedral corner reflectors are being increasingly used as point targets in deformation monitoring studies using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques. The frequency and size dependence of the corner reflector Radar Cross Section (RCS) means that no single design can perform equally in
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Trihedral corner reflectors are being increasingly used as point targets in deformation monitoring studies using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques. The frequency and size dependence of the corner reflector Radar Cross Section (RCS) means that no single design can perform equally in all the possible imaging modes and radar frequencies available on the currently orbiting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites. Therefore, either a corner reflector design tailored to a specific data type or a compromise design for multiple data types is required. In this paper, I outline the practical and theoretical considerations that need to be made when designing appropriate radar targets, with a focus on supporting multi-frequency SAR data. These considerations are tested by performing field experiments on targets of different size using SAR images from TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed and RADARSAT-2. Phase noise behaviour in SAR images can be estimated by measuring the Signal-to-Clutter ratio (SCR) in individual SAR images. The measured SCR of a point target is dependent on its RCS performance and the influence of clutter near to the deployed target. The SCR is used as a metric to estimate the expected InSAR displacement error incurred by the design of each target and to validate these observations against theoretical expectations. I find that triangular trihedral corner reflectors as small as 1 m in dimension can achieve a displacement error magnitude of a tenth of a millimetre or less in medium-resolution X-band data. Much larger corner reflectors (2.5 m or greater) are required to achieve the same displacement error magnitude in medium-resolution C-band data. Compromise designs should aim to satisfy the requirements of the lowest SAR frequency to be used, providing that these targets will not saturate the sensor of the highest frequency to be used. Finally, accurate boresight alignment of the corner reflector can be critical to the overall target performance. Alignment accuracies better than 4° in azimuth and elevation will incur a minimal impact on the displacement error in X and C-band data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Analysis of Design Parameter Effects on the Performance of a Solar Desiccant Evaporative Cooling System in Brisbane, Australia
Energies 2017, 10(7), 849; doi:10.3390/en10070849 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Solar desiccant cooling is widely considered as an attractive replacement for conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems because of its environmental friendliness and energy efficiency advantages. The system performance of solar desiccant cooling strongly depends on the input parameters associated with the system
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Solar desiccant cooling is widely considered as an attractive replacement for conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems because of its environmental friendliness and energy efficiency advantages. The system performance of solar desiccant cooling strongly depends on the input parameters associated with the system components, such as the solar collector, storage tank and backup heater, etc. In order to understand the implications of different design parameters on the system performance, this study has conducted a parametric analysis on the solar collector area, storage tank volume, and backup heater capacity of a solid solar desiccant cooling system for an office building in Brisbane, Australia climate. In addition, a parametric analysis on the outdoor air humidity ratio control set-point which triggers the operation of the desiccant wheel has also been investigated. The simulation results have shown that either increasing the storage tank volume or increasing solar collector area would result in both increased solar fraction (SF) and system coefficient of performance (COP), while at the same time reduce the backup heater energy consumption. However, the storage tank volume is more sensitive to the system performance than the collector area. From the economic aspect, a storage capacity of 30 m3/576 m2 has the lowest life cycle cost (LCC) of $405,954 for the solar subsystem. In addition, 100 kW backup heater capacity is preferable for the satisfaction of the design regeneration heating coil hot water inlet temperature set-point with relatively low backup heater energy consumption. Moreover, an outdoor air humidity ratio control set-point of 0.008 kgWater/kgDryAir is more reasonable, as it could both guarantee the indoor design conditions and achieve low backup heater energy consumption. Full article

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