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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of the Impacts of Two Types of El Niño on the Central and Eastern Pacific ITCZ
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070266 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) were used to investigate the discrepancy of Centre and Eastern Pacific ITCZ (CEP-ITCZ) during two types of El Niño years. Two models of the heat source
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The precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) were used to investigate the discrepancy of Centre and Eastern Pacific ITCZ (CEP-ITCZ) during two types of El Niño years. Two models of the heat source distribution during two types of El Niño events were constructed, and the causes of different CEP-ITCZ anomalies for two types of El Niño events were analyzed through the Gill model. The results show that the CEP-ITCZ precipitation is approximately 4.0° southward, and the intensity is enhanced by 3.6 mm/day during the mature period of Eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño), while during the mature period of Central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño), it is only 0.8° southward, and the intensity is enhanced by 3.2 mm/day. The meridional mode of the SST anomaly by means of EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) can indirectly affect the CEP-ITCZ by influencing the atmospheric Rossby wave response. In CP-El Niño years, the meridional mode of the SST anomaly is weak, and the atmospheric Rossby wave response enhances the northern and southern trade-wind zones at the same time. The anomaly of cross-equatorial flow is weak and the CEP-ITCZ moves southward a little. At the same time, the wind convergence zone is enhanced, and it is more conducive to the vertical transport of water vapor. In EP-El Niño years, the meridional mode of the SST anomaly is strong, and the atmospheric Rossby wave response strengthens the meridional wind on the northern side of the equator, leading to the southward shift of the CEP-ITCZ. At the same time, the wind convergence zone is weakened and widened, and to a certain extent, it suppresses the vertical transport increase of water vapor caused by the sea surface evaporation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Wave Distribution Simulated by WAVEWATCH-III Model in Typhoons Passing Beibu Gulf, China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070265 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The Beibu Gulf is an important offshore region in the South China Sea for the fishing industry and other human activities. In 2017, typhoons Doksuri and Khanun passed the Beibu Gulf in two paths, at maximum wind speeds of up to 50 m/s.
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The Beibu Gulf is an important offshore region in the South China Sea for the fishing industry and other human activities. In 2017, typhoons Doksuri and Khanun passed the Beibu Gulf in two paths, at maximum wind speeds of up to 50 m/s. Typhoon Doksuri passed the Beibu Gulf through the open waters of the South China Sea and Typhoon Khanun moved towards the Beibu Gulf through the narrow Qiongzhou Strait. The aim of this study is to analyze the typhoon-induced wave distribution in the Beibu Gulf. WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) is a third-generation numeric wave model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which has been widely used for sea wave research. The latest version of the WW3 (5.16) model provides three packages of nonlinear term for four wave components (quadruplets) wave–wave interactions, including Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), Full Boltzmann Integral (WRT), and Generalized Multiple DIA (GMD) with two kinds of coefficients, herein called GMD1 and GMD2. These four packages have been conveniently implemented for simulating wave fields in two typhoons after taking winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at 0.125° grids as the forcing fields. It was found that the GMD2 package was the recommended option of the nonlinear term for quadruplets wave–wave interactions due to the minimum error when comparing a number of simulated results from the WW3 model with significant wave height (SWH) from ECMWF and altimeter Jason-2. Then the wave distribution simulated by the WW3 model employing the GMD2 package was analyzed. In the case of Typhoon Doksuri, wind-sea dominated in the early and middle stages while swell dominated at the later stage. However, during Typhoon Khanun, wind-sea dominated throughout and swell distributed outside the bay around the east of Hainan Island, because the typhoon-induced swell at mesoscale was difficult to propagate into the Beibu Gulf through the narrow Qiongzhou Strait. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Tate Pairing Algorithm for a Decentralized Key-Policy Attribute Based Encryption Scheme in Cloud Environments
Cryptography 2018, 2(3), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography2030014 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is used for achieving data confidentiality and access control in cloud environments. Most often ABE schemes are constructed using bilinear pairing which has a higher computational complexity, making algorithms inefficient to some extent. The motivation of this paper is on
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Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is used for achieving data confidentiality and access control in cloud environments. Most often ABE schemes are constructed using bilinear pairing which has a higher computational complexity, making algorithms inefficient to some extent. The motivation of this paper is on achieving user privacy during the interaction with attribute authorities by improving the efficiency of ABE schemes in terms of computational complexity. As a result the aim of this paper is two-fold; firstly, to propose an efficient Tate pairing algorithm based on multi-base number representation system using point halving (TP-MBNR-PH) with bases 1/2, 3, and 5 to reduce the cost of bilinear pairing operations and, secondly, the TP-MBNR-PH algorithm is applied in decentralized KP-ABE to compare its computational costs for encryption and decryption with existing schemes. Full article
Open AccessReview
Chain Trajectory, Chain Packing, and Molecular Dynamics of Semicrystalline Polymers as Studied by Solid-State NMR
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070775 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Chain-level structure of semicrystalline polymers in melt- and solution-grown crystals has been debated over the past half century. Recently, 13C–13C double quantum (DQ) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been successfully applied to investigate chain-folding (CF) structure and packing structure
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Chain-level structure of semicrystalline polymers in melt- and solution-grown crystals has been debated over the past half century. Recently, 13C–13C double quantum (DQ) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been successfully applied to investigate chain-folding (CF) structure and packing structure of 13C enriched polymers after solution and melt crystallization. We review recent NMR studies for (i) packing structure, (ii) chain trajectory, (iii) conformation of the folded chains, (iv) nucleation mechanisms, (v) deformation mechanism, and (vi) molecular dynamics of semicrystalline polymers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dominant Fish and Macroinvertebrate Response to Flow Changes of the Geum River in Korea
Water 2018, 10(7), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070942 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study presents the impact of natural flow patterns on downstream aquatic species habitats in a reach of the Geum River, Korea. The study reach is a 13.4 km long, located downstream of the Yongdam Dam. To assess such an impact, this study
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This study presents the impact of natural flow patterns on downstream aquatic species habitats in a reach of the Geum River, Korea. The study reach is a 13.4 km long, located downstream of the Yongdam Dam. To assess such an impact, this study performed physical habitat simulations. The River2D model was used for the computation of the flow field and morphology, and the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the habitat simulation. Three habitat variables—flow depth, velocity, and substrate were used. The Zacco platypus and Baetis fuscatus were selected as the target fish and benthic macro-invertebrate, respectively. Using the building block approach (BBA), the scenarios for modifying dam operations were constructed in the study reach. Scenario 1, scenario 2, and scenario 3 were proposed by using the magnitude–duration concept, base flow allocation concept, and seasonally adjusted minimum flow allocation concept, respectively. Simulation results indicated that the scenarios’ effects significantly increased by about 14.3% for the weighted usable area (WUA). In addition, the morphology change with the restoration of flood events was investigated. It was revealed that the morphology change in the physical habitat simulations further increased by about 13% for the WUA. The change of dam operations through natural flow patterns is more advantageous to aquatic species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Home Front: Specialized Reference Testing for Dengue in the Australasian Region
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030075 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Reference laboratories are vital for disease control and interpreting the complexities and impact of emerging pathogens. The role of these centralized facilities extends beyond routine screening capabilities to provide rapid, specific, and accurate diagnoses, advanced data analysis, consultation services, and sophisticated disease surveillance
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Reference laboratories are vital for disease control and interpreting the complexities and impact of emerging pathogens. The role of these centralized facilities extends beyond routine screening capabilities to provide rapid, specific, and accurate diagnoses, advanced data analysis, consultation services, and sophisticated disease surveillance and monitoring. Within the Australasian region, the Public Health Virology Laboratory (PHV), Forensic and Scientific Services, Department of Health, Queensland Government, Australia, and the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR), New Zealand (NZ) perform specialized reference testing and surveillance for dengue viruses (DENVs) and other emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). With a focus on DENV, we review the reference testing performed by PHV (2005 to 2017) and ESR (2008 to 2017). We also describe how the evolution and expansion of reference-based methodologies and the adoption of new technologies have provided the critical elements of preparedness and early detection that complement frontline public health control efforts and limit the spread of arboviruses within Australasia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bidding Behavior in the Housing Market under Different Market Regimes
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2018, 11(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm11030041 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether different market regimes affect bidding behavior in housing auctions. Taking advantage of special circumstances in the Norwegian housing market in 2015 and 2016, we conduct a survey involving 1803 respondents in three of Norway’s
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The aim of this paper is to investigate whether different market regimes affect bidding behavior in housing auctions. Taking advantage of special circumstances in the Norwegian housing market in 2015 and 2016, we conduct a survey involving 1803 respondents in three of Norway’s largest cities, Oslo, Stavanger and Trondheim. In the Norwegian housing market 90 percent of dwellings are sold after an English auction. Norway has a rather homogeneous market, with the same laws, traditions, interest rates and approximately the same tax rates applying across the country. However, in December 2016, the two-year nominal house price increase was 34.8 percent in Oslo and 14.8 percent in Trondheim, whereas prices fell 7.8 percent over the same period in Stavanger. We find that households in booming housing markets appear to believe that a more aggressive bidding strategy is advisable to obtain a dwelling at the lowest possible price, compared with households in bust markets. Evidence suggesting that bidders in booming markets are less likely to decide on a maximum price limit before an auction commences substantiates this finding. In addition, we find that bidders in booming markets have a weaker reliance on real estate agents. Full article
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