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Open AccessArticle
Study on Hysteresis Model of Welding Material in Unstiffened Welded Joints of Steel Tubular Truss Structure
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091701 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The weld form of intersecting joints in a steel tubular truss structure changes with the various intersecting curves. As the key role of joints in energy dissipation and seismic resistance, the weld is easy to damage, as a result the constitutive behavior of
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The weld form of intersecting joints in a steel tubular truss structure changes with the various intersecting curves. As the key role of joints in energy dissipation and seismic resistance, the weld is easy to damage, as a result the constitutive behavior of the weld is different from that of the base metal. In order to define the cumulative damage characteristic and study the constitutive behavior of welded metal with the influence of damage accumulation, low-cycle fatigue tests were carried out to evaluate overall response characteristics and to quantify variation of cyclic stress amplitude, unloading stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. The results show that the cyclic softening behavior of welding materials is apparent, however, the steel shows hardening behavior with the increase of cyclic cycles, while the cyclic stress amplitude, unloading stiffness, and energy dissipation capacity of the welding materials degenerate gradually. Based on the Ramberg–Osgood model and introducing the damage variable D, a hysteretic model of welding material with the effect of damage accumulation was established, including an initial loading curve, cyclic stress-strain curve, and hysteretic curve model. Further, the evolution equation of D was also built. The parameters reflecting the damage degradation were fitted by the test data, and the simulation results of the model were proved to be in good agreement with the test results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Transesterification Reactions with CLEA-Immobilized Feruloyl Esterases from Thermothelomyces thermophila and Talaromyces wortmannii
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092403 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, E.C. 3.1.1.73) are biotechnologically important enzymes with several applications in ferulic acid production from biomass, but also in synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The use of such biocatalysts in commercial processes can become feasible by their immobilization, providing the advantages
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Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, E.C. 3.1.1.73) are biotechnologically important enzymes with several applications in ferulic acid production from biomass, but also in synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The use of such biocatalysts in commercial processes can become feasible by their immobilization, providing the advantages of isolation and recycling. In this work, eight feruloyl esterases, immobilized in cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) were tested in regard to their transesterification performance, towards the production of prenyl ferulate (PFA) and arabinose ferulate (AFA). After solvent screening, comparison with the activity of respective soluble enzymes, and operational stability tests, FAE125 was selected as the most promising biocatalyst. A central composite design revealed the optimum conditions for each transesterification product, in terms of water content, time, and substrate ratio for both products, and temperature and enzyme load additionally for prenyl ferulate. The optimum product yields obtained were 83.7% for PFA and 58.1% for AFA. FAE125 CLEAs are stable in the optimum conditions of transesterification reactions, maintaining 70% residual activity after five consecutive reactions. Overall, FAE125 CLEAs seem to be able to perform as a robust biocatalyst, offering satisfactory yields and stability, and thus showing significant potential for industrial applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Al Element on the Microstructure and Properties of Cu-Ni-Fe-Mn Alloys
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091777 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The effects of aluminum on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior in artificial seawater of Cu-Ni-Fe-Mn alloys were investigated. Cu-7Ni-xAl-1Fe-1Mn samples, consisting of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt % aluminum along with the same contents of other alloying elements
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The effects of aluminum on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior in artificial seawater of Cu-Ni-Fe-Mn alloys were investigated. Cu-7Ni-xAl-1Fe-1Mn samples, consisting of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt % aluminum along with the same contents of other alloying elements (Ni, Fe, and Mn), were prepared. The microstructure of Cu-7Ni-xAl-1Fe-1Mn alloy was analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion property was tested by an electrochemical system. The results show that the mechanical and corrosion properties of Cu-7Ni-xAl-1Fe-1Mn alloy have an obvious change with the aluminum content. The tensile strength has a peak value of 395 MPa by adding 3 wt % aluminum in the alloy. Moreover, the corrosion rate in artificial seawater of Cu-7Ni-3Al-1Fe-1Mn alloy is 0.0215 mm/a which exhibits a better corrosion resistance than the commercially used UNS C70600. It is confirmed that the second-phase transformation of Cu-7Ni-xAl-1Fe-1Mn alloy follows the sequence of α solid solution → Ni3Al → Ni3Al + NiAl → Ni3Al + NiAl3. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the adding element aluminum in the Cupronickel can improve the corrosion resistance of Cu-7Ni-xAl-1Fe-1Mn alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Heterogeneous Ensemble Approach for Activity Recognition with Integration of Change Point-Based Data Segmentation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091695 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
One of the main topics of Smart Home (SH) research is the recognition of activities performed by its inhabitants, which is considered to be one of the bases to foster new technological solutions inside the home, including services to prolong independent living of
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One of the main topics of Smart Home (SH) research is the recognition of activities performed by its inhabitants, which is considered to be one of the bases to foster new technological solutions inside the home, including services to prolong independent living of the elderly. However, current activity recognition proposals still find problems when considering all the different types of activities that can be performed at home, namely static, dynamic, and transitional activities. In this paper, we consider recognition of transitional activities, which is often ignored in most studies. In addition, we propose a novel dynamic segmentation method based on change points in data stream and construct an ensemble of heterogeneous classifiers to recognize twelve activities (of all types). The experiment is conducted on the dataset collected over ten hours by a wearable accelerometer placed on the person’s wrist. The base classifiers selected to form this ensemble are support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN). As a result, the proposed approach has achieved an overall classification accuracy equal to 96.87% with 10-fold cross-validation. Moreover, all activity types considered have been similarly well identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Total Polysaccharides and Total Flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging and Multivariate Analysis
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092395 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The rapid and nondestructive determination of active compositions in Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hangbaiju) is of great value for producers and consumers. Hyperspectral imaging as a rapid and nondestructive technique was used to determine total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Hyperspectral
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The rapid and nondestructive determination of active compositions in Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hangbaiju) is of great value for producers and consumers. Hyperspectral imaging as a rapid and nondestructive technique was used to determine total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Hyperspectral images of different sizes of Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were acquired. Pixel-wise spectra within all samples were preprocessed by wavelet transform (WT) followed by standard normal variate (SNV). Partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) were used to build prediction models using sample average spectra calculated by preprocessed pixel-wise spectra. The LS-SVM model performed better than the PLS models, with the determination of the coefficient of calibration (R2c) and prediction (R2p) being over 0.90 and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) being over 3 for total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content prediction. Prediction maps of total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content in Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were successfully obtained by LS-SVM models, which exhibited the best performances. The overall results showed that hyperspectral imaging was a promising technique for the rapid and accurate determination of active ingredients in Chrysanthemum morifolium, indicating the great potential to develop an online system for the quality determination of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Review of the Synthesis and Applications of Polymer–Nanoclay Composites
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091696 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Recent advancements in material technologies have promoted the development of various preparation strategies and applications of novel polymer–nanoclay composites. Innovative synthesis pathways have resulted in novel polymer–nanoclay composites with improved properties, which have been successfully incorporated in diverse fields such as aerospace, automobile,
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Recent advancements in material technologies have promoted the development of various preparation strategies and applications of novel polymer–nanoclay composites. Innovative synthesis pathways have resulted in novel polymer–nanoclay composites with improved properties, which have been successfully incorporated in diverse fields such as aerospace, automobile, construction, petroleum, biomedical and wastewater treatment. These composites are recognized as promising advanced materials due to their superior properties, such as enhanced density, strength, relatively large surface areas, high elastic modulus, flame retardancy, and thermomechanical/optoelectronic/magnetic properties. The primary focus of this review is to deliver an up-to-date overview of polymer–nanoclay composites along with their synthesis routes and applications. The discussion highlights potential future directions for this emerging field of research. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Shadow Puppets and Neglected Diseases: Evaluating a Health Promotion Performance in Rural Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092050 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
‘Rama and the Worm’ is a shadow puppet production targeting neglected diseases in Central Java. It is an entertainment-based intervention study to promote health by reducing the impact of parasitic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The study uses traditional Javanese shadow puppetry
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‘Rama and the Worm’ is a shadow puppet production targeting neglected diseases in Central Java. It is an entertainment-based intervention study to promote health by reducing the impact of parasitic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The study uses traditional Javanese shadow puppetry (wayang kulit) as a vehicle in village communities to disseminate health messages and promote behaviour change to prevent diseases caused, primarily, by inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. The health education messages contained in the play, although using traditional characters and themes, required the creation of a completely new narrative script, using characters and plot lines familiar to the wayang kulit repertoire, but placing them in new situations that relate specifically to health promotion objectives. The intervention was piloted in a village in Central Java, Indonesia using a pre/post design with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. A total of 96 male and female villagers, aged between 7 and 87 years, provided both baseline and follow up data. Participant knowledge and behaviours related to gastrointestinal and helminth-related disease were assessed before and after the intervention through a questionnaire administered by interview. Results revealed statistically significant improvements in both knowledge (48.6% pre-intervention score vs. 62.8% post-intervention score, p < 0.001) and behaviour (77.4% vs. 80.6%, p = 0.004) related to gastrointestinal and helminth disease. Findings of the study indicate the wayang kulit performance is an effective health education tool. The results provide proof of concept with scaling up the next step forward. The wayang kulit production provides a significant additional component for an integrated, comprehensive approach to reduction and elimination of STH infection. Full article
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