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Open AccessArticle
Using Eye Tracking to Evaluate the Usability of Flow Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7070281 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Flow maps allow users to perceive not only the location where interactions take place, but also the direction and volume of events. Previous studies have proposed numerous methods to produce flow maps. However, how to evaluate the usability of flow maps has not
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Flow maps allow users to perceive not only the location where interactions take place, but also the direction and volume of events. Previous studies have proposed numerous methods to produce flow maps. However, how to evaluate the usability of flow maps has not been well documented. In this study, we combined eye-tracking and questionnaire methods to evaluate the usability of flow maps through comparisons between (a) straight lines and curves and (b) line thicknesses and color gradients. The results show that curved flows are more effective than straight flows. Maps with curved flows have more correct answers, fixations, and percentages of fixations in areas of interest. Furthermore, we find that the curved flows require longer finish times but exhibit smaller times to first fixation than straight flows. In addition, we find that using color gradients to indicate the flow volume is significantly more effective than the application of different line thicknesses, which is mainly reflected by the presence of more correct answers in the color-gradient group. These empirical studies could help improve the usability of flow maps employed to visualize geo-data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation Analysis of Phenolic Contents and Antioxidation in Yellow- and Black-Seeded Brassica napus
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071815 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Brassica napus L. is rich in phenolic components and it has natural antioxidant characteristics which are important to human health. In the present study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of developing seeds of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus were compared. Both phenolic
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Brassica napus L. is rich in phenolic components and it has natural antioxidant characteristics which are important to human health. In the present study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of developing seeds of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus were compared. Both phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher at 5 weeks after flowering (WAF) in black seeds (6.44 ± 0.97 mg EE/g phenolics and 3.78 ± 0.05 mg EE/g flavonoids) than yellow seeds (2.80 ± 0.13 mg/g phenolics and 0.83 ± 0.01 mg/g flavonoids). HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS analysis revealed different content of 56 phenolic components between yellow and black-seeded B. napus, including kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, procyanidin B2 ([DP 2]), which were significantly reduced in yellow seeds compared with black seeds. Applying the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical assay, we found maximum clearance of DPPH and ABTS in the late developmental stages of yellow and black seeds. Additionally, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value maximized at 5 WAF in black seeds (432.52 ± 69.98 μmol Fe (II)/g DW) and 6 WAF in yellow seeds (274.08 ± 2.40 μmol Fe (II)/g DW). Generally, antioxidant ability was significantly reduced in yellow-seeded B. napus compared to black rapeseed, and positive correlations between antioxidation and flavonoid content were found in both yellow- and black-seeded B. napus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extreme Energy Density Confined Inside a Transparent Crystal: Status and Perspectives of Solid-Plasma-Solid Transformations
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070555 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
It was demonstrated during the past decade that an ultra-short intense laser pulse tightly-focused deep inside a transparent dielectric generates an energy density in excess of several MJ/cm3. Such an energy concentration with extremely high heating and fast quenching rates leads
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It was demonstrated during the past decade that an ultra-short intense laser pulse tightly-focused deep inside a transparent dielectric generates an energy density in excess of several MJ/cm3. Such an energy concentration with extremely high heating and fast quenching rates leads to unusual solid-plasma-solid transformation paths, overcoming kinetic barriers to the formation of previously unknown high-pressure material phases, which are preserved in the surrounding pristine crystal. These results were obtained with a pulse of a Gaussian shape in space and in time. Recently, it has been shown that the Bessel-shaped pulse could transform a much larger amount of material and allegedly create even higher energy density than what was achieved with the Gaussian beam (GB) pulses. Here, we present a succinct review of previous results and discuss the possible routes for achieving higher energy density employing the Bessel beam (BB) pulses and take advantage of their unique properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Azaphilones from Nigrospora oryzae Co-Cultured with Beauveria bassiana
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071816 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this study, the co-culture of Nigrospora oryzae and Beauveria bassiana, the endophytes in the seeds of Dendrobium officinale, were examined for metabolite diversity. Five new azaphilones were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectral analysis. In terms of azaphilones,
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In this study, the co-culture of Nigrospora oryzae and Beauveria bassiana, the endophytes in the seeds of Dendrobium officinale, were examined for metabolite diversity. Five new azaphilones were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectral analysis. In terms of azaphilones, compound 2 had an unprecedented skeleton, with a bicyclic oxygen bridge. The antifungal selectivities of the metabolite produced by N. oryzae against its co-culture fungus, B. bassiana, and common pathogens exhibited competitive interaction in this mix-culture. Compounds 1 and 2 showed obvious nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity with ratios of 37%, and 39%, respectively, at a concentration of 50 μM. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Understanding the Role of Dysfunctional and Healthy Mitochondria in Stroke Pathology and Its Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072127 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Stroke remains a major cause of death and disability in the United States and around the world. Solid safety and efficacy profiles of novel stroke therapeutics have been generated in the laboratory, but most failed in clinical trials. Investigations into the pathology and
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Stroke remains a major cause of death and disability in the United States and around the world. Solid safety and efficacy profiles of novel stroke therapeutics have been generated in the laboratory, but most failed in clinical trials. Investigations into the pathology and treatment of the disease remain a key research endeavor in advancing scientific understanding and clinical applications. In particular, cell-based regenerative medicine, specifically stem cell transplantation, may hold promise as a stroke therapy, because grafted cells and their components may recapitulate the growth and function of the neurovascular unit, which arguably represents the alpha and omega of stroke brain pathology and recovery. Recent evidence has implicated mitochondria, organelles with a central role in energy metabolism and stress response, in stroke progression. Recognizing that stem cells offer a source of healthy mitochondria—one that is potentially transferrable into ischemic cells—may provide a new therapeutic tool. To this end, deciphering cellular and molecular processes underlying dysfunctional mitochondria may reveal innovative strategies for stroke therapy. Here, we review recent studies capturing the intimate participation of mitochondrial impairment in stroke pathology, and showcase promising methods of healthy mitochondria transfer into ischemic cells to critically evaluate the potential of mitochondria-based stem cell therapy for stroke patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D WebGIS: From Visualization to Analysis. An Efficient Browser-Based 3D Line-of-Sight Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7070279 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
3D WebGIS systems have been mentioned in the literature almost since the beginning of the graphical web era in the late 1990s. The potential use of 3D WebGIS is linked to a wide range of scientific and application domains, such as planning, controlling,
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3D WebGIS systems have been mentioned in the literature almost since the beginning of the graphical web era in the late 1990s. The potential use of 3D WebGIS is linked to a wide range of scientific and application domains, such as planning, controlling, tracking or simulation in crisis management, military mission planning, urban information systems, energy facilities or cultural heritage management, just to name a few. Nevertheless, many applications or research prototypes entitled as 3D WebGIS or similar are mainly about 3D visualization of GIS data or the visualization of analysis results, rather than about performing the 3D analysis itself online. This research paper aims to step forward into the direction of web-based 3D geospatial analysis. It describes how to overcome speed and memory restrictions in web-based data management by adapting optimization strategies, developed earlier for web-based 3D visualization. These are applied in a holistic way in the context of a fully 3D line-of-sight computation over several layers with split (tiled) and unsplit (static) data sources. Different optimization approaches are combined and evaluated to enable an efficient client side analysis and a real 3D WebGIS functionality using new web technologies such as HTML5 and WebGL. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Parameterisation of Physiographic Features of Urbanised Catchment Areas on the Spatial Distribution of Components of the Water Balance Using the WetSpass Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7070278 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
An analysis was conducted of the activity of individual homogeneous Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) and their impact on the components of the spatially distributed water balance based on the example of two urbanised catchments of the city of Poznań (Western Poland). Water balance
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An analysis was conducted of the activity of individual homogeneous Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) and their impact on the components of the spatially distributed water balance based on the example of two urbanised catchments of the city of Poznań (Western Poland). Water balance was developed using the WetSpass model and GIS spatial data, based on hydrometeorological data from the reference period of 1961–2000 including projected land usage changes and precipitation changes expected by 2025 in the city. The catchments were parameterised with reference to land usage, soil permeability, terrain declivities and the level of groundwater waters in summer and winter. The dependence between HRUs and their impact on components of the water balance was determined. Water balance forecasts have shown two-way changes in the components of approximately 12% of the catchments. A significant increase of surface runoff (an increase of 20–30 mm/HRU) at the expense of effective infiltration reduction (by 15–20 mm/HRU) was determined for arable land intended for development. An increase of infiltration and evapotranspiration at the expense of the surface runoff reduction is forecast for areas designed for urban afforestation. The tendency of increase of atmospheric precipitation within the city until 2025 was indicated by changes in the water balance components. Changes in the landscape resulting from urban expansion may lead to detrimental hydrological effects: accumulation of surface runoffs and occurrence of local flash flooding, as confirmed by the simulations carried out using the WetSpass model. The results may contribute to a more accurate understanding of the impact of urban landscape modificationpatterns on the water balance at the regional and local scale. Full article

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