Latest Articles

Open AccessArticle
Biochar and Biomass Ash as a Soil Ameliorant: The Effect on Selected Soil Properties and Yield of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus)
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102535 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We assess the possibility of using biochar and ash from plant biomass to fertilise giant miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). The paper concerns the optimisation of the combination of fertiliser applications of the aforementioned materials in the context of the plant yield
[...] Read more.
We assess the possibility of using biochar and ash from plant biomass to fertilise giant miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). The paper concerns the optimisation of the combination of fertiliser applications of the aforementioned materials in the context of the plant yield obtained. There was an increase in yield of 8–68% over the two years of research when compared with the control plots. It was found that the application of biochar, ash from biomass and a combination of the two at appropriate rates as a soil additive can substitute for classic mineral fertilisers and strengthen the ecological aspects of energy crop cultivation. The interpretation of the results obtained enabled the selection of optimum fertiliser applications, resulting in a significant increase in the yield of plants and an improvement in soil chemical properties. It was found that the highest yield of dry matter of giant miscanthus plants, after both the first and second year of cultivation, was obtained by applying the fertiliser containing ash at a rate of 1.5 t ha−1, together with biocarbon and the combination of biochar and ash at a rate of 1.5 t ha−1. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
New Distance Measure for Atanassov’s Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Its Application in Decision Making
Symmetry 2018, 10(10), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100429 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The intuitionistic fuzzy set introduced by Atanassov has greater ability in depicting and handling uncertainty. Intuitionistic fuzzy measure is an important research area of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. Distance measure and similarity measure are two complementary concepts quantifying the difference and closeness of
[...] Read more.
The intuitionistic fuzzy set introduced by Atanassov has greater ability in depicting and handling uncertainty. Intuitionistic fuzzy measure is an important research area of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. Distance measure and similarity measure are two complementary concepts quantifying the difference and closeness of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. This paper addresses the definition of an effective distance measure with concise form and specific meaning for Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy sets (AIFSs). A new distance measure for AIFSs is defined based on a distance measure of interval values and the transformation from AIFSs to interval valued fuzzy sets. The axiomatic properties of the new distance measure are mathematically investigated. Comparative analysis based in numerical examples indicates that the new distance measure is competent to quantify the difference between AIFSs. The application of the new distance measure is also discussed. A new method for multi-attribute decision making (MADM) is developed based on the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution method and the new distance measure. Numerical applications indicate that the developed MADM method can obtain reasonable preference orders. This shows that the new distance measure is effective and rational from both mathematical and practical points of view. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Some Linguistic Neutrosophic Cubic Mean Operators and Entropy with Applications in a Corporation to Choose an Area Supervisor
Symmetry 2018, 10(10), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100428 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, we combined entropy with linguisti neutrosophic cubic numbers and used it in daily life problems related to a corporation that is going to choose an area supervisor, which is the main target of our proposed model. For this, we first
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we combined entropy with linguisti neutrosophic cubic numbers and used it in daily life problems related to a corporation that is going to choose an area supervisor, which is the main target of our proposed model. For this, we first develop the theory of linguistic neutrosophic cubic numbers, which explains the indeterminate and incomplete information by truth, indeterminacy and falsity linguistic variables (LVs) for the past, present, as well as for the future time very effectively. After giving the definitions, we initiate some basic operations and properties of linguistic neutrosophic cubic numbers. We also define the linguistic neutrosophic cubic Hamy mean operator and weighted linguistic neutrosophic cubic Hamy mean (WLNCHM) operator with some properties, which can handle multi-input agents with respect to the different time frame. Finally, as an application, we give a numerical example in order to test the applicability of our proposed model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Large-Signal Stability Modeling for the Grid-Connected VSC Based on the Lyapunov Method
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102533 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, a Lyapunov-based method is used in order to determine the stability boundaries of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC). To do so, a state space model of the VSC is used to form the Lyapunov function of the system. Then,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a Lyapunov-based method is used in order to determine the stability boundaries of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC). To do so, a state space model of the VSC is used to form the Lyapunov function of the system. Then, by using the eigenvalues of the Lyapunov function, the system stability boundaries will be determined. It is shown that the grid-connected VSC works in its stable mode when all of its Lyapunov function’s eigenvalues are positive. The proposed model validity is tested by time-domain simulation. Simulation results show that the method is credible in determining the stability margin of the grid-connected VSC. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Administrative Intensity and Student Retention and Success: A Three-Year Study
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040159 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Through the lens of complexity theory and by utilizing the methodological framework set forth in Gander’s 1999 article regarding internal and external organizational elements of administrative intensity, this secondary data analysis study linked the internal organizational elements of administrative intensity to institutional results
[...] Read more.
Through the lens of complexity theory and by utilizing the methodological framework set forth in Gander’s 1999 article regarding internal and external organizational elements of administrative intensity, this secondary data analysis study linked the internal organizational elements of administrative intensity to institutional results as evidenced by higher education student retention and graduation rates. Representing institutional investments, efforts, and outcomes from 2004 to 2014, three years of data reporting were gathered from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Set (IPEDS) and were then cleaned per secondary data analysis techniques. Using canonical correlation analysis, the internal elements of administrative intensity were correlated with student retention and success. Findings indicate the relationships of internal elements of higher education institutions on student retention and success, which was measured by four-year, six-year, and eight-year graduation rates. The discussion includes education policy implications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Critical Theoretical Frameworks in Engineering Education: An Anti-Deficit and Liberative Approach
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040158 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The field of engineering education has adapted different theoretical frameworks from a wide range of disciplines to explore issues of education, diversity, and inclusion among others. The number of theoretical frameworks that explore these issues using a critical perspective has been increasing in
[...] Read more.
The field of engineering education has adapted different theoretical frameworks from a wide range of disciplines to explore issues of education, diversity, and inclusion among others. The number of theoretical frameworks that explore these issues using a critical perspective has been increasing in the past few years. In this review of the literature, we present an analysis that draws from Freire’s principles of critical andragogy and pedagogy. Using a set of inclusion criteria, we selected 33 research articles that used critical theoretical frameworks as part of our systematic review of the literature. We argue that critical theoretical frameworks are necessary to develop anti-deficit approaches to engineering education research. We show how engineering education research could frame questions and guide research designs using critical theoretical frameworks for the purpose of liberation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Brønsted and Lewis Solid Acid Catalysts in the Valorization of Citronellal
Catalysts 2018, 8(10), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8100410 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Terpenes are valuable starting materials for the synthesis of molecules that are of interest to the flavor, fragrance, and pharmaceutical industries. However, most processes involve the use of mineral acids or homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts. Here, we report results obtained in the liquid-phase
[...] Read more.
Terpenes are valuable starting materials for the synthesis of molecules that are of interest to the flavor, fragrance, and pharmaceutical industries. However, most processes involve the use of mineral acids or homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts. Here, we report results obtained in the liquid-phase reaction of citronellal with anilines under heterogeneous catalysis conditions to give tricyclic compounds with interesting pharmacological activity. The terpenic aldehyde could be converted into octahydroacridines with a 92% yield through an intramolecular imino Diels–Alder reaction of the imine initially formed in the presence of an acidic clay such as Montmorillonite KSF. Selectivity to the desired product strongly depended on the acid sites distribution, with Brønsted acids favoring selectivity to octahydroacridine and formation of the cis isomer. Pure Lewis acids such as silica–alumina with a very low amount of alumina gave excellent results with electron-rich anilines like toluidine and p-anisidine. This protocol can be applied starting directly from essential oils such as kaffir lime oil, which has a high citronellal content. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP)

IOAP participants benefit from discounts and convenient payment options.

Feedback

We are keen to hear what you think about MDPI. To leave us your feedback, suggestions or questions please click here.

See what our authors and guest editors say about us.

About MDPI

MDPI.com is a platform for peer-reviewed, scientific open-access journals operated by MDPI, based in Basel, Switzerland. Additional offices are located in Beijing and Wuhan (China) as well as in Barcelona (Spain).

Back to Top