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Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John's University of Tanzania, Dodoma, Tanzania
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2013; in revised form: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Abstract: Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis) and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity). The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness.
Keywords: biosensor; BioMEMS; biomarkers; closed loop system; illness management; implantable systems
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Ngoepe, M.; Choonara, Y.E.; Tyagi, C.; Tomar, L.K.; du Toit, L.C.; Kumar, P.; Ndesendo, V.M.K.; Pillay, V. Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness. Sensors 2013, 13, 7680-7713.
Ngoepe M, Choonara YE, Tyagi C, Tomar LK, du Toit LC, Kumar P, Ndesendo VMK, Pillay V. Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness. Sensors. 2013; 13(6):7680-7713.
Ngoepe, Mpho; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tyagi, Charu; Tomar, Lomas K.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M.K.; Pillay, Viness. 2013. "Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness." Sensors 13, no. 6: 7680-7713.