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Sensors 2012, 12(6), 7423-7437; doi:10.3390/s120607423

A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Marmara University, Goztepe 34722, Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida Health, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC 11, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2012 / Revised: 22 May 2012 / Accepted: 28 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BioMEMS and Advanced Analytical Sensors for Biological Applications)
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In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovarian cancer; MEMS; piezoelectric; sensor; early detection; Bcl-2; SH; SAW; SAM; ultrasound ovarian cancer; MEMS; piezoelectric; sensor; early detection; Bcl-2; SH; SAW; SAM; ultrasound

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Onen, O.; Sisman, A.; Gallant, N.D.; Kruk, P.; Guldiken, R. A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection. Sensors 2012, 12, 7423-7437.

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