Next Article in Journal
Numerical Simulation of Optically-Induced Dielectrophoresis Using a Voltage-Transformation-Ratio Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Broadcasting in Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Extended Kalman Filter-Based Methods for Pose Estimation Using Visual, Inertial and Magnetic Sensors: Comparative Analysis and Performance Evaluation
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2013, 13(2), 1942-1964; doi:10.3390/s130201942

A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Federal University of Pará, Av. Augusto Corrêa, 01, CEP 66075-110, Belém, Brazil
Institute of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Bern, Neubrückstrasse 10,3012, Bern, Switzerland
Federal University of Ceará, Campus do Pici, Bloco 942-A, CEP 60020-181, Fortaleza, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2012 / Revised: 20 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1646 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |  


The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.
Keywords: energy-efficiency; internet of things; link quality; routing; wireless sensor network energy-efficiency; internet of things; link quality; routing; wireless sensor network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Machado, K.; Rosário, D.; Cerqueira, E.; Loureiro, A.A.F.; Neto, A.; de Souza, J.N. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications. Sensors 2013, 13, 1942-1964.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top