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Sensors 2006, 6(12), 1837-1850; doi:10.3390/s6121837

Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis

1
Flow Innovation-Research for Science and Technology Laboratories (FIRST Labs.), Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
5
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Japan
6
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 January 2006 / Accepted: 14 January 2006 / Published: 26 January 2006
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
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Abstract

This work presents the construction and application of boron-doped diamond(BDD) thin film electrode as sensor for the determination of three β-agonists, viz.salbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol. Although well-known as a chemically inertmaterial, BDD film however shows fouling in detection of these compounds using fixedpotentialmode amperometry. A suitable waveform for pulsed amperometric detection(PAD) was developed and used to determine the agonist compounds. It was seen that thedeveloped PAD significantly refreshed the BDD surface for long-term detection in flowinjection analysis. Linear working ranges were 0.5-100 μM, 1.0-100 μM and 0.5-50 μM forsalbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol, respectively. The developed PAD-BDD system wasapplied to successfully determine salbutamol and terbutaline in commercial pharmaceuticalproducts. The methods were validated with a capillary electrophoresis method.
Keywords: boron-doped diamond; pulsed amperometry; β-agonists; flow injection boron-doped diamond; pulsed amperometry; β-agonists; flow injection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Karuwan, C.; Mantim, T.; Chaisuwan, P.; Wilairat, P.; Grudpan, K.; Jittangprasert, P.; Einaga, Y.; Chailapakul, O.; Suntornsuk, L.; Anurukvorakun, O.; Nacapricha, D. Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis. Sensors 2006, 6, 1837-1850.

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