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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2013), Pages 579-688

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Improved Estimation of Protein-Ligand Binding Free Energy by Using the Ligand-Entropy and Mobility of Water Molecules
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 604-622; doi:10.3390/ph6050604
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We previously developed the direct interaction approximation (DIA) method to estimate the protein-ligand binding free energy (DG). The DIA method estimates the DG value based on the direct van der Waals and electrostatic interaction energies between the protein and the ligand. In the
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We previously developed the direct interaction approximation (DIA) method to estimate the protein-ligand binding free energy (DG). The DIA method estimates the DG value based on the direct van der Waals and electrostatic interaction energies between the protein and the ligand. In the current study, the effect of the entropy of the ligand was introduced with protein dynamic properties by molecular dynamics simulations, and the interaction between each residue of the protein and the ligand was also weighted considering the hydration of each residue. The molecular dynamics simulation of the apo target protein gave the hydration effect of each residue, under the assumption that the residues, which strongly bind the water molecules, are important in the protein-ligand binding. These two effects improved the reliability of the DIA method. In fact, the parameters used in the DIA became independent of the target protein. The averaged error of DG estimation was 1.3 kcal/mol and the correlation coefficient between the experimental DG value and the calculated DG value was 0.75. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Assessment of Clevidipine Using the Profilin1 Hypertensive Mouse Model
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 623-633; doi:10.3390/ph6050623
Received: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular events, associating with vascular hypertrophy and dysfunction in resistance vessels. Clevidipine is a novel antihypertensive drug working as a selective calcium channel antagonist with an ultra-short half-life that lowers arterial blood pressure by reducing systemic
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Hypertension represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular events, associating with vascular hypertrophy and dysfunction in resistance vessels. Clevidipine is a novel antihypertensive drug working as a selective calcium channel antagonist with an ultra-short half-life that lowers arterial blood pressure by reducing systemic arterial resistance. The aim was to assess the effect of clevidipine on the hypertrophic vessels of profilin1 hypertensive transgenic mice compared to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and labetalol using wire myograph techniques. The effects of clevidipine, SNP and labetalol on the hypertrophic vessels were studied on mesenteric arterial function from 8 profilin1 hypertrophic mice and eight non-transgenic controls. Our results showed a significant difference between the effects of the three drugs on the hypertrophic mesenteric arteries of transgenic profilin1 mice compared to the non-transgenic controls. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of clevidipine, SNP and labetalol in profilin1 mice (1.90 ± 0.05, 0.97 ± 0.07, 2.80 ± 0.05 nM, respectively) were significantly higher than the EC50 in non-transgenic controls (0.91 ± 0.06, 0.32 ± 0.06, 0.80 ± 0.09 nM, respectively). Moreover, the increase in the EC50 for clevidipine (2-fold) to produce the same effect on both normal and hypertrophic arteries was less than that of SNP (3-fold) and labetalol (3.5-fold). Therefore, we concluded clevidipine exhibited the lowest dose shift to relax the hypertrophic vessels compared to SNP and labetalol in the profilin1 hypertrophic animal mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Antagonists)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Anti-Leukemia, Quantum Chemical Calculations and ADMET Investigations of Some Quaternary and Isothiouronium Surfactants
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 634-649; doi:10.3390/ph6050634
Received: 17 November 2012 / Revised: 29 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anti-leukemia screening of previously prepared isothiouronium and quaternary salts was performed, and some salts exhibited promising activity as anticancer agents. Quantum chemical calculations were utilized to explore the electronic structure and stability of these compounds. Computational studies have been carried out at the
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Anti-leukemia screening of previously prepared isothiouronium and quaternary salts was performed, and some salts exhibited promising activity as anticancer agents. Quantum chemical calculations were utilized to explore the electronic structure and stability of these compounds. Computational studies have been carried out at the PM3 semiempirical molecular orbitals level, to establish the HOMO-LUMO, IP and ESP mapping of these compounds. The ADMET properties were also studied to gain a clear view of the potential oral bioavailability of these compounds. The surface properties calculated included critical micelle concentration (CMC), maximum surface excess (Γmax), minimum surface area (Amin), free energy of micellization (ΔGomic) and adsorption (ΔGoads). Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Advances in Mammalian Cell Line Development Technologies for Recombinant Protein Production
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 579-603; doi:10.3390/ph6050579
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From 2006 to 2011, an average of 15 novel recombinant protein therapeutics have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) annually. In addition, the expiration of blockbuster biologics has also spurred the emergence of biosimilars. The increasing numbers of innovator biologic
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From 2006 to 2011, an average of 15 novel recombinant protein therapeutics have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) annually. In addition, the expiration of blockbuster biologics has also spurred the emergence of biosimilars. The increasing numbers of innovator biologic products and biosimilars have thus fuelled the demand of production cell lines with high productivity. Currently, mammalian cell line development technologies used by most biopharmaceutical companies are based on either the methotrexate (MTX) amplification technology or the glutamine synthetase (GS) system. With both systems, the cell clones obtained are highly heterogeneous, as a result of random genome integration by the gene of interest and the gene amplification process. Consequently, large numbers of cell clones have to be screened to identify rare stable high producer cell clones. As such, the cell line development process typically requires 6 to 12 months and is a time, capital and labour intensive process. This article reviews established advances in protein expression and clone screening which are the core technologies in mammalian cell line development. Advancements in these component technologies are vital to improve the speed and efficiency of generating robust and highly productive cell line for large scale production of protein therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Open AccessReview Natural Products as a Source for New Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Compounds through the Inhibition of Purinergic P2X Receptors
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 650-658; doi:10.3390/ph6050650
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural products have reemerged in traditional medicine as a potential source of new molecules or phytomedicines to help with health disorders. It has been established that members of the P2X subfamily, ATP-gated ion channels, are crucial to the inflammatory process and pain signalization.
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Natural products have reemerged in traditional medicine as a potential source of new molecules or phytomedicines to help with health disorders. It has been established that members of the P2X subfamily, ATP-gated ion channels, are crucial to the inflammatory process and pain signalization. As such, several preclinical studies have demonstrated that P2X2R, P2X3R, P2X4R and P2X7R are promising pharmacological targets to control inflammatory and pain disorders. Several studies have indicated that natural products could be a good source of the new specific molecules needed for the treatment of diseases linked to inflammation and pain disorders through the regulation of these receptors. Herein, we discuss and give an overview of the applicability of natural products as a source to obtain P2X receptors (P2XR) selective antagonists for use in clinical treatment, which require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purine and Its Derivatives)
Open AccessReview FedExosomes: Engineering Therapeutic Biological Nanoparticles that Truly Deliver
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 659-680; doi:10.3390/ph6050659
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many aspects of intercellular communication are mediated through “sending” and “receiving” packets of information via the secretion and subsequent receptor-mediated detection of biomolecular species including cytokines, chemokines, and even metabolites. Recent evidence has now established a new modality of intercellular communication through which
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Many aspects of intercellular communication are mediated through “sending” and “receiving” packets of information via the secretion and subsequent receptor-mediated detection of biomolecular species including cytokines, chemokines, and even metabolites. Recent evidence has now established a new modality of intercellular communication through which biomolecular species are exchanged between cells via extracellular lipid vesicles. A particularly important class of extracellular vesicles is exosomes, which is a term generally applied to biological nanovesicles ~30–200 nm in diameter. Exosomes form through invagination of endosomes to encapsulate cytoplasmic contents, and upon fusion of these multivesicular endosomes to the cell surface, exosomes are released to the extracellular space and transport mRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and proteins between cells. Importantly, exosome-mediated delivery of such cargo molecules results in functional modulation of the recipient cell, and such modulation is sufficiently potent to modulate disease processes in vivo. It is possible that such functional delivery of biomolecules indicates that exosomes utilize native mechanisms (e.g., for internalization and trafficking) that may be harnessed by using exosomes to deliver exogenous RNA for therapeutic applications. A complementary perspective is that understanding the mechanisms of exosome-mediated transport may provide opportunities for “reverse engineering” such mechanisms to improve the performance of synthetic delivery vehicles. In this review, we summarize recent progress in harnessing exosomes for therapeutic RNA delivery, discuss the potential for engineering exosomes to overcome delivery challenges and establish robust technology platforms, and describe both potential challenges and advantages of utilizing exosomes as RNA delivery vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNAi-Based Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview Evolution of Biologics Screening Technologies
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 681-688; doi:10.3390/ph6050681
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screening for biologics, in particular antibody drugs, has evolved significantly over the last 20 years. Initially, the screening processes and technologies from many years experience with small molecules were adopted and modified to suit the needs of biologics discovery. Since then, antibody drug
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Screening for biologics, in particular antibody drugs, has evolved significantly over the last 20 years. Initially, the screening processes and technologies from many years experience with small molecules were adopted and modified to suit the needs of biologics discovery. Since then, antibody drug discovery has matured significantly and is today investing earlier in new technologies that commercial suppliers are now developing specifically to meet the growing needs of large molecule screening. Here, we review the evolution of screening and automation technologies employed in antibody discovery and highlight the benefits that these changes have brought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
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