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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 3046-3059; doi:10.3390/md12053046
Article

Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

1
,
1
,
2,†
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia 2 Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biological Sciences, University of Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany Permanent address: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia 61519, Egypt
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
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Abstract

Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 110, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.
Keywords: co-cultivation; induced metabolites; sponge-associated actinomycetes; NMR fingerprint; bioactivity co-cultivation; induced metabolites; sponge-associated actinomycetes; NMR fingerprint; bioactivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Dashti, Y.; Grkovic, T.; Abdelmohsen, U.R.; Hentschel, U.; Quinn, R.J. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3046-3059.

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