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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(6), 2214-2240; doi:10.3390/ijerph10062214

Burnout in Relation to Specific Contributing Factors and Health Outcomes among Nurses: A Systematic Review

1,2,* , 3,4,5
1 School of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Monash South Africa, 144 Peter Road, Roodepoort, Johannesburg 1725, South Africa 2 Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Melbourne 3800, Australia 3 Human Science Research Council, 134 Pretorius Street, Pretoria 0002, South Africa 4 University of Limpopo, University Street, Turfloop, Sovenga, Polokwane 0727, South Africa 5 ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya 73170, Thailand 6 Monash Alfred Hospital Campus, Level 3 Burnet Tower, 89 Commercial Road, Melbourne 3004, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job Stress and Health)
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Nurses have been found to experience higher levels of stress-related burnout compared to other health care professionals. Despite studies showing that both job satisfaction and burnout are effects of exposure to stressful working environments, leading to poor health among nurses, little is known about the causal nature and direction of these relationships. The aim of this systematic review is to identify published research that has formally investigated relationships between these variables. Six databases (including CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and PsyINFO) were searched for combinations of keywords, a manual search was conducted and an independent reviewer was asked to cross validate all the electronically identified articles. Of the eighty five articles that were identified from these databases, twenty one articles were excluded based on exclusion criteria; hence, a total of seventy articles were included in the study sample. The majority of identified studies exploring two and three way relationships (n = 63) were conducted in developed countries. Existing research includes predominantly cross-sectional studies (n = 68) with only a few longitudinal studies (n = 2); hence, the evidence base for causality is still very limited. Despite minimal availability of research concerning the small number of studies to investigate the relationships between work-related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and the general health of nurses, this review has identified some contradictory evidence for the role of job satisfaction. This emphasizes the need for further research towards understanding causality.
Keywords: work related stress; burnout; job satisfaction; general health; staff nurses; relationship work related stress; burnout; job satisfaction; general health; staff nurses; relationship
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Khamisa, N.; Peltzer, K.; Oldenburg, B. Burnout in Relation to Specific Contributing Factors and Health Outcomes among Nurses: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2214-2240.

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