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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 438; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040438

A Little Bug with a Big Bite: Impact of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations on Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern USA and Potential Control Strategies

1
Department of Public Health, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
Lindsay Young Beneficial Insects Laboratory, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [322 KB, uploaded 19 April 2017]

Abstract

Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, HWA) remains the single greatest threat to the health and sustainability of hemlock in the eastern USA. The loss of hemlock trees leads to further negative impacts on the diversity and stability of ecosystems in the eastern part of North America. It is, therefore, urgent to develop effective control measures to reduce HWA populations and promote overall hemlock health. Currently available individual and integrated approaches should continue to be evaluated in the laboratory and in the field along with the development of other new and innovative methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemlock trees; hemlock woolly adelgid; Adelges tsugae; pest management and policy hemlock trees; hemlock woolly adelgid; Adelges tsugae; pest management and policy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Letheren, A.; Hill, S.; Salie, J.; Parkman, J.; Chen, J. A Little Bug with a Big Bite: Impact of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations on Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern USA and Potential Control Strategies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 438.

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