Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2011), Pages 4118-4385

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-15
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4140-4159; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114140
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 4 November 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the [...] Read more.
In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited. Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Validation of Walk Score® for Estimating Neighborhood Walkability: An Analysis of Four US Metropolitan Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4160-4179; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114160
Received: 6 September 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published: 4 November 2011
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score® for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5–11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant’s residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05). The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score® is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score® is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales. Full article
Open AccessArticle MATES in Construction: Impact of a Multimodal, Community-Based Program for Suicide Prevention in the Construction Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4180-4196; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114180
Received: 29 August 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention); gatekeeper training provided to [...] Read more.
A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention); gatekeeper training provided to construction worker volunteer ‘Connectors’; Suicide First Aid (ASIST) training offered to key workers; outreach support provided by trained and supervised MIC staff; state-wide suicide prevention hotline; case management service; and postvention support provided in the event of a suicide. Findings from over 7,000 workers (April 2008 to November 2010) are reported, indicating strong construction industry support, with 67% building sites and employers approached agreeing to participate in MIC. GAT participants demonstrated significantly increased suicide prevention awareness compared with a comparison group. Connector training participants rated MIC as helpful and effective, felt prepared to intervene with a suicidal person, and knew where to seek help for a suicidal individual following the training. Workers engaged positively with the after-hours crisis support phone line and case management. MIC provided postvention support to 10 non-MIC sites and sites engaged with MIC, but not yet MIC-compliant. Current findings support the potential effectiveness and social validity of MIC for preventing suicide in construction workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Influenza Vaccination Among Adults 65 Years or Older: A 2009–2010 Community Health Survey in the Honam Region of Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4197-4206; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114197
Received: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study examined the rates and related factors for influenza vaccination among the elderly Korean population during the 2008/09 influenza seasons. We obtained data for 6,391 adults aged 65 years or older from Community Health Surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 [...] Read more.
The present study examined the rates and related factors for influenza vaccination among the elderly Korean population during the 2008/09 influenza seasons. We obtained data for 6,391 adults aged 65 years or older from Community Health Surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 in 13 communities in the Honam region of Korea. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with self-reported influenza vaccinations. In this elderly population, 81.7% reported to having received an influenza vaccination in the past year. The main contributing factors were older age, lower economic status, lower educational level, married, non-smoking, regular alcohol consumption, regular walking exercise, receiving a health check-up during the past two years, not stressed, and having comorbid conditions. The influenza vaccination coverage rate among elderly Koreans was relatively high, but improvements in vaccination rates are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4207-4219; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114207
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The [...] Read more.
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results: Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4220-4237; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114220
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and [...] Read more.
We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Effective Day Length at Any Light Intensity Using Solar Radiation Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4272-4283; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114272
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of day length on living creatures differs with the photosensitivity of the creature; however, the possible sunshine duration (N0) might be an inadequate index of the photoperiod for creatures with low light sensitivity. To address this issue, [...] Read more.
The influence of day length on living creatures differs with the photosensitivity of the creature; however, the possible sunshine duration (N0) might be an inadequate index of the photoperiod for creatures with low light sensitivity. To address this issue, the authors tried to estimate the effective day length, i.e., the duration of the photoperiod that exceeds a certain threshold of light intensity. Continual global solar radiation observation data were gathered from the baseline surface radiation network (BSRN) of 18 sites from 2004 to 2007 and were converted to illuminance data using a luminous efficiency model. The monthly average of daily photoperiods exceeding each defined intensity (1 lx, 300 lx, … 20,000 lx) were calculated [defined as Ne(lux)]. The relationships between the monthly average of global solar radiation (Rs), N0, and Ne(lux) were investigated. At low light intensity (10,000 lx), Ne(lux) and Rs showed a logarithmic relationship. Using these relationships, empirical models were derived to estimate the effective day length at different light intensities. According to the validation of the model, the effective day length for any light intensity could be estimated with an accuracy of less than 11% of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) in the estimation of the monthly base photoperiod. Recently, a number of studies have provided support for a link between day length and some diseases. Our results will be useful in further assessing the relationships between day length and these diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4284-4299; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114284
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family) and F dose (< 0.05 and ≥0.05 mg F/Kg of body weight/day) were associated with the independent variables (p < 0.05). No differences were found between children’s and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513). The following were strong predictors for the use of a children’s dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p < 0.001); age that the child begun to tooth brush < 2 years (OR: 2.93; p = 0.041), and the interaction between the variables “use of the same dentifrice as parents” and “type of tooth brush used” (OR: 27.20; p < 0.001). “The amount of dentifrice used” and “frequency of tooth brushing” (p ≤ 0.004) had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physician Consultations According to Different BMI Levels of the Greek General Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4300-4311; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114300
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 4 October 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity constitutes a global epidemic which is rapidly becoming a major public health problem in many parts of the world, threatening peoples’ health and quality of life. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence and impact of overweight and [...] Read more.
Obesity constitutes a global epidemic which is rapidly becoming a major public health problem in many parts of the world, threatening peoples’ health and quality of life. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence and impact of overweight and obesity on physician consultations and frequency of use and furthermore, to investigate whether physician consultations in each of the groups defined by BMI level correspond to the need for care implied by health risk level, using logistic regression models. The survey was carried out in Greece in 2006 and involved complete data from 645 individuals consulted by physicians. Overweight and obese users constituted 41.7% and 19% of the sample respectively. The findings showed firstly that the odds of obese individuals visiting a physician (OR 2.15) or making more than three visits (OR 2.12) was doubled compared to the odds of individuals with normal weight. Secondly, we conclude that physician consultations in overweight and obese subgroups as well as the frequency of visits were predicted by factors such as co-morbidities, low HRQL, low educational level which are associated directly or indirectly with obesity, and thus with a greater health need, assuming vertical equity in the utilization of such services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessCommunication Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4312-4331; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114312
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)—(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and [...] Read more.
Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)—(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Water Quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and Its Indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4332-4352; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114332
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of [...] Read more.
Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4367-4385; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114367
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected [...] Read more.
Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4118-4139; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114118
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 3 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? [...] Read more.
Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success. Full article
Open AccessReview Trichloroethylene and Cancer: Systematic and Quantitative Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Identifying Hazards
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4238-4271; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114238
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on studies with high potential for trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure to provide quantitative evaluations of the evidence for associations between TCE exposure and kidney, liver, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancers. A systematic review documenting essential design features, exposure [...] Read more.
We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on studies with high potential for trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure to provide quantitative evaluations of the evidence for associations between TCE exposure and kidney, liver, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancers. A systematic review documenting essential design features, exposure assessment approaches, statistical analyses, and potential sources of confounding and bias identified twenty-four cohort and case-control studies on TCE and the three cancers of interest with high potential for exposure, including five recently published case-control studies of kidney cancer or NHL. Fixed- and random-effects models were fitted to the data on overall exposure and on the highest exposure group. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of individual studies and of alternative risk estimate selections. For overall TCE exposure and kidney cancer, the summary relative risk (RRm) estimate from the random effects model was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.43), with a higher RRm for the highest exposure groups (1.58, 95% CI: 1.28, 1.96). The RRm estimates were not overly sensitive to alternative risk estimate selections or to removal of an individual study. There was no apparent heterogeneity or publication bias. For NHL, RRm estimates for overall exposure and for the highest exposure group, respectively, were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.82) and, for liver cancer, 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.56) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.77). Our findings provide strong support for a causal association between TCE exposure and kidney cancer. The support is strong but less robust for NHL, where issues of study heterogeneity, potential publication bias, and weaker exposure-response results contribute uncertainty, and more limited for liver cancer, where only cohort studies with small numbers of cases were available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Cancer)
Open AccessReview Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4353-4366; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114353
Received: 25 October 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (67 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, [...] Read more.
Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top