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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2011), Pages 2569-3062

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Open AccessArticle Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Reduces Immunoglobulin E Binding to Atlantic White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) Extract
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2569-2583; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072569
Received: 18 May 2011 / Accepted: 19 June 2011 / Published: 24 June 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), [...] Read more.
Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Food Allergy)
Open AccessArticle Anthropometric Characteristics of Hospitalised Elderly Women: A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2584-2592; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072584
Received: 21 March 2011 / Revised: 14 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 24 June 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed the anthropometric status of 451 hospitalised female patients aged 70 or over, at their admission to hospital, in reference to 77 healthy women of the same age. The most frequent diseases were circulatory diseases (40.8%), mental disorders (29.9%), respiratory [...] Read more.
This study assessed the anthropometric status of 451 hospitalised female patients aged 70 or over, at their admission to hospital, in reference to 77 healthy women of the same age. The most frequent diseases were circulatory diseases (40.8%), mental disorders (29.9%), respiratory diseases (12.4%), endocrine and metabolic diseases (11.5%), osteomuscular diseases (8.4%), and traumatisms (6.9%). The differences were significantly high for mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), weight, weight/height, and body mass index (BMI). The patients with cancers, blood diseases, mental disorders, respiratory disease, digestive diseases, or traumatisms had the lowest values. All the indicators correlated in a similarly negative way with age. The decreased TSF was more pronounced among subjects with respiratory diseases. Measurement of anthropometric indicators, TSF in particular, should be part of preventive measures aimed at reducing malnutrition and its consequences in a hospital setting. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Alcohol Use and Associated Factors in Urban Hospital Outpatients in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2629-2639; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072629
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 28 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. The sample included 1,532 (56.4% men and women 43.6%) consecutively selected patients from different hospital outpatient departments. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. The sample included 1,532 (56.4% men and women 43.6%) consecutively selected patients from different hospital outpatient departments. Results indicate that 41.2% of men and 18.3% of women were found to be hazardous drinkers, and 3.6% of men and 1.4% of women meet criteria for probable alcohol dependence or harmful drinking as defined by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Two in five patients (40.5%) were hazardous or harmful drinkers and/or had anxiety or depression. Logistic multiple regression found that for men tobacco use and not having been diagnosed with diabetes and for women tobacco use and having been diagnosed with migraine headache was associated with hazardous and harmful drinking. Although the study is cross-sectional, it does identify groups that may be at high risk of alcohol misuse and for whom intervention is urgent. Because prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use is high in this population, routine screening should be introduced in hospital out-patient settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2640-2655; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072640
Received: 4 March 2011 / Revised: 22 June 2011 / Accepted: 23 June 2011 / Published: 28 June 2011
PDF Full-text (1163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by [...] Read more.
Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Geotechnics)
Open AccessArticle Anabolic Androgenic Steroids—Use and Correlates among Gym Users—An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2656-2674; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072656
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to the questionnaire, 3.9% of men reported life time use of AAS, 1.4% use during the past 12 months and 0.4% AAS use during past 30 days. Not only were there similar patterns found in the two methods, i.e., similar age and gender distributions for AAS use, but analyses of concordance showed that gyms with a higher prevalence of self-reported AAS-use and supplement use (questionnaire) showed a significantly higher proportion of observer-assessed AAS users. Analyses of individual predictors showed that AAS users were almost always young men, regular weight trainers and more often users of drugs and nutritional supplements. The higher prevalence of AAS use among gym users than in the general population makes the former an appropriate target group for AAS prevention. The connection between supplements, drugs and AAS use suggests that effective AAS prevention need to focus on several risk factors for AAS use. The clear resemblance in estimates between the observation and questionnaire data strengthen the credibility of the two methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2692-2705; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072692
Received: 16 May 2011 / Revised: 15 June 2011 / Accepted: 23 June 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey [...] Read more.
This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Candidate Genes and Physiological Pathways Involved in Gonad Deformation in Whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2706-2733; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072706
Received: 28 April 2011 / Revised: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 30 June 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In 2000, fishermen reported the appearance of deformed reproductive organs in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland. Despite intensive investigations, the causes of these abnormalities remain unknown. Using gene expression profiling, we sought to identify candidate genes and physiological processes [...] Read more.
In 2000, fishermen reported the appearance of deformed reproductive organs in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland. Despite intensive investigations, the causes of these abnormalities remain unknown. Using gene expression profiling, we sought to identify candidate genes and physiological processes possibly associated with the observed gonadal deformations, in order to gain insights into potential causes. Using in situ-synthesized oligonucleotide arrays, we compared the expression levels at 21,492 unique transcript probes in liver and head kidney tissue of male whitefish with deformed and normally developed gonads, respectively. The fish had been collected on spawning sites of two genetically distinct whitefish forms of Lake Thun. We contrasted the gene expression profiles of 56 individuals, i.e., 14 individuals of each phenotype and of each population. Gene-by-gene analysis revealed weak expression differences between normal and deformed fish, and only one gene, ictacalcin, was found to be up-regulated in head kidney tissue of deformed fish from both whitefish forms, However, this difference could not be confirmed with quantitative real-time qPCR. Enrichment analysis on the level of physiological processes revealed (i) the involvement of immune response genes in both tissues, particularly those linked to complement activation in the liver, (ii) proteolysis in the liver and (iii) GTPase activity and Ras protein signal transduction in the head kidney. In comparison with current literature, this gene expression pattern signals a chronic autoimmune disease in the testes. Based on the recent observations that gonad deformations are induced through feeding of zooplankton from Lake Thun we hypothesize that a xenobiotic accumulated in whitefish via the plankton triggering autoimmunity as the likely cause of gonad deformations. We propose several experimental strategies to verify or reject this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Biology)
Open AccessArticle Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2734-2746; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072734
Received: 20 May 2011 / Revised: 13 June 2011 / Accepted: 26 June 2011 / Published: 30 June 2011
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Abstract
The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural [...] Read more.
The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle High Tobacco Use among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations in West Virginian Bars and Community Festivals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2758-2769; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072758
Received: 20 May 2011 / Revised: 13 June 2011 / Accepted: 28 June 2011 / Published: 1 July 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) populations in West Virginia (WV), it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in [...] Read more.
With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) populations in West Virginia (WV), it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6) in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%), as was current cigarette use (41%). Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to Explore Spatial Varying Relationships of Immature Mosquitoes and Human Densities with the Incidence of Dengue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2798-2815; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072798
Received: 10 June 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The only way for dengue to spread in the human population is through the human-mosquito-human cycle. Most research in this field discusses the dengue-mosquito or dengue-human relationships over a particular study area, but few have explored the local spatial variations of dengue-mosquito [...] Read more.
The only way for dengue to spread in the human population is through the human-mosquito-human cycle. Most research in this field discusses the dengue-mosquito or dengue-human relationships over a particular study area, but few have explored the local spatial variations of dengue-mosquito and dengue-human relationships within a study area. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models to analyze spatial relationships and identify the geographical heterogeneities by using the information of entomology and dengue cases in the cities of Kaohsiung and Fengshan in 2002. Our findings indicate that dengue-mosquito and dengue-human relationships were significantly spatially non-stationary. This means that in some areas higher dengue incidences were associated with higher vector/host densities, but in some areas higher incidences were related to lower vector/host densities. We demonstrated that a GWR model can be used to geographically differentiate the relationships of dengue incidence with immature mosquito and human densities. This study provides more insights into spatial targeting of intervention and control programs against dengue outbreaks within the study areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Long-Term γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) and Disulfiram Combination Therapy in GHB Treatment-Resistant Chronic Alcoholics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2816-2827; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072816
Received: 28 May 2011 / Revised: 15 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leading Italian studies support the use of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), not only in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but also in maintaining alcohol abstinence. GHB gives a better result than naltrexone and disulfiram in maintaining abstinence, and it has a [...] Read more.
Leading Italian studies support the use of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), not only in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but also in maintaining alcohol abstinence. GHB gives a better result than naltrexone and disulfiram in maintaining abstinence, and it has a better effect on craving than placebo or disulfiram. The problem is that about 30–40% of alcoholics are non-responders to GHB therapy. In our clinical practice, we speculate that by combining disulfiram with GHB treatment we may be able to achieve a kind of ‘antagonist’ effect by using the ‘psychological threat’ of disulfiram (adversative effect) while taking advantage of the anticraving effect of GHB, despite the limitation of its ‘non-blockade’ effect on alcohol. In this context, to improve the outcome in GHB long-term treated alcoholics, we added disulfiram to GHB in the management of GHB treatment-resistant alcoholics. In this study we compared retention in treatment of 52 patients who were treated with the GHB-disulfiram combination for up to six months, with retention for the same subjects considering their most recent unsuccessful outpatient long-term treatment with GHB only. An additional comparison was carried out on the days of complete abstention from alcohol. Thirty four patients (65.4%) successfully completed the protocol and were considered to be responders; 18 (34.6%) left the programme, and were considered to be non-responders. Considering the days of complete abstinence from alcohol, 36 patients stayed in treatment longer with the GHB-Disulfiram combination, 12 stayed for a shorter time and four for the same time. The results of this study seem to indicate a higher efficacy of the GHB-disulfiram association compared with GHB alone. Randomized controlled trials are now needed to verify this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Environmental Risks for Established Invasive Weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and Yellow (L. vulgaris) Toadflax in North America
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2828-2853; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072828
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental risk assessments characterizing potential environmental impacts of exotic weeds are more abundant and comprehensive for potential or new invaders than for widespread and well-established species such as Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica [L.] Mill.) and yellow (L. vulgaris Mill.) toadflax. Specific [...] Read more.
Environmental risk assessments characterizing potential environmental impacts of exotic weeds are more abundant and comprehensive for potential or new invaders than for widespread and well-established species such as Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica [L.] Mill.) and yellow (L. vulgaris Mill.) toadflax. Specific effects evaluated in our assessment of environmental risks posed by yellow and Dalmatian toadflax included competitive displacement of other plant species, reservoirs of plant disease, animal and insect use, animal toxicity, human toxicity and allergenicity, erosion, and wildfire. Effect and exposure uncertainties for potential impacts of toadflax on human and ecological receptors were rated. Using publicly available information we were able to characterize ecological and human health impacts associated with toadflax, and to identify specific data gaps contributing to a high uncertainty of risk. Evidence supporting perceived negative environmental impacts of invasive toadflax was scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Hypothalamic Glial-to-Neuronal Signaling during Puberty: Influence of Alcohol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2876-2894; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072894
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mammalian puberty requires complex interactions between glial and neuronal regulatory systems within the hypothalamus that results in the timely increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Assessing the molecules required for the development of coordinated communication networks between glia [...] Read more.
Mammalian puberty requires complex interactions between glial and neuronal regulatory systems within the hypothalamus that results in the timely increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Assessing the molecules required for the development of coordinated communication networks between glia and LHRH neuron terminals in the basal hypothalamus, as well as identifying substances capable of affecting cell-cell communication are important. One such pathway involves growth factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that bind to specific erbB receptors. Activation of this receptor results in the release of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) from adjacent glial cells, which then acts on the nearby LHRH nerve terminals to elicit release of the peptide. Another pathway involves novel genes which synthesize adhesion/signaling proteins responsible for the structural integrity of bi-directional glial-neuronal communication. In this review, we will discuss the influence of these glial-neuronal communication pathways on the prepubertal LHRH secretory system, and furthermore, discuss the actions and interactions of alcohol on these two signaling processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2907-2922; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072907
Received: 30 March 2011 / Revised: 29 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, [...] Read more.
There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Earth System Science)
Open AccessArticle Change of Exposure Response over Time and Long-Term Risk of Silicosis among a Cohort of Chinese Pottery Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2923-2936; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072923
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of [...] Read more.
An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1). Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure). A long-term “excess” risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m3, using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2937-2950; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072937
Received: 30 May 2011 / Revised: 26 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate [...] Read more.
We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variation of Water Quality and Phytoplankton Response Patterns in Daya Bay, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2951-2966; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072951
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data collected from 12 stations in Daya Bay in different seasons in 2002 revealed the relation between water quality and phytoplankton response patterns. The results showed that Daya Bay could be divided into wet and dry seasons by multivariate statistical analysis. Principal [...] Read more.
Data collected from 12 stations in Daya Bay in different seasons in 2002 revealed the relation between water quality and phytoplankton response patterns. The results showed that Daya Bay could be divided into wet and dry seasons by multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients were important components during the wet season (summer and autumn). The salinity and dissolved oxygen were the main environmental factors in the dry season (winter and spring). According to non-metric multidimensional scaling, there was a shift from the large diatoms in the dry season to the smaller line-chain taxa in the wet season with the condition of a high dissolved inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen to phosphorous concentration ratio. Nutrient changes can thus alter the phytoplankton community composition and biomass, especially near the aquaculture farm areas. There was no evidence of an effect of thermal water from the nearby nuclear power plants on the observed changes in phytoplankton community and biomass in 2002. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle The Environmental and Social Influences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2967-2979; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072967
Received: 25 May 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has caused far-reaching effects in sub-Saharan Africa. The pandemic has effectively diminished the workforce, increased poverty rates, reduced agricultural productivity, and transformed the structure of many rural households. HIV/AIDS further strains the already fragile [...] Read more.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has caused far-reaching effects in sub-Saharan Africa. The pandemic has effectively diminished the workforce, increased poverty rates, reduced agricultural productivity, and transformed the structure of many rural households. HIV/AIDS further strains the already fragile relationship between livelihood and the natural and social environments of these regions. Therefore, the objective of this review is to characterize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the environment and the social infrastructure of rural sub-Saharan Africa. There are many aspects of rural life that contribute to disease transmission of HIV/AIDS and that pose unique challenges to the population dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread AIDS-related mortality has caused a decrease in population growth for many African countries. In turn, these alterations in population dynamics have resulted in a decrease in the percentage of prime-age working adults, as well as a gender disparity, whereby, females carry a growing burden of household responsibilities. There is a rising proportion of older adults, often females, who assume the role of provider and caretaker for other dependent family members. These changing dynamics have caused many to exploit their natural surroundings, adopting less sustainable land use practices and utilizing protected resources as a primary means of generating revenue. Full article
Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effects of Ethanol Consumption on Insulin Resistance Are Only Applicable to Subjects Without Obesity or Insulin Resistance; Drinking is not Necessarily a Remedy for Metabolic Syndrome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 3019-3031; doi:10.3390/ijerph8073019
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 21 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although moderate drinking has been shown to lower insulin resistance levels, it is still unclear whether alcoholic beverages could be remedies for insulin resistance. To elucidate this, the correlation between levels of ethanol consumption and insulin resistance were cross-sectionally examined in 371 [...] Read more.
Although moderate drinking has been shown to lower insulin resistance levels, it is still unclear whether alcoholic beverages could be remedies for insulin resistance. To elucidate this, the correlation between levels of ethanol consumption and insulin resistance were cross-sectionally examined in 371 non-diabetic male Japanese workers. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the ethanol consumption level was inversely correlated with the insulin resistance level assessed by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR, p = 0.0014), the serum insulin level (p = 0.0007), and pancreatic β-cell function, also assessed by HOMA (HOMA-β, p = 0.0002), independently from age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure, liver function tests, and lipid profiles status, as well as serum adiponectin. The correlations were true in subjects with normal BMIs (up to 25.0 kg/m2, n = 301) or normal HOMA-IR (up to 2.0 µIU·mg/µL·dL n = 337), whereas all of them were non-significant in those with excessive BMIs (n = 70) or in those with HOMA-IR of more than 2.0 (n = 34). Although it is still unclear whether the reductions of these parameters by ethanol consumption are truly due to the improvement of insulin resistance, at least, these effects are not applicable to subjects with obesity and/or insulin resistance. Thus, alcoholic beverages could not be remedies for insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 3032-3062; doi:10.3390/ijerph8073032
Received: 9 May 2011 / Revised: 17 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation [...] Read more.
This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Transportation)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Protean Toxicities of Lead: New Chapters in a Familiar Story
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2593-2628; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072593
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 17 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 27 June 2011
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many times in the history of lead toxicology the view that “the problem” has been solved and is no longer a major health concern has prevailed, only to have further research demonstrate the prematurity of this judgment. In the last decade, an [...] Read more.
Many times in the history of lead toxicology the view that “the problem” has been solved and is no longer a major health concern has prevailed, only to have further research demonstrate the prematurity of this judgment. In the last decade, an extraordinary amount of new research on lead has illustrated, all too clearly, that “the problem” has not disappeared, and that, in fact, it has dimensions never before considered. Recent risk assessments have concluded that research has yet to identify a threshold level below which lead can be considered “safe.” Although children’s intelligence has traditionally been considered to be the most sensitive endpoint, and used as the basis for risk assessment and standard setting, increased lead exposure has been associated with a wide variety of other morbidities both in children and adults, in some cases at biomarker levels comparable to those associated with IQ deficits in children. In adults, these endpoints include all-cause mortality and dysfunctions in the renal, cardiovascular, reproductive, central nervous systems. In children, IQ deficits are observed at blood lead levels well below 10 μg/dL, and the dose-effect relationship appears to be supra-linear. Other health endpoints associated with greater early-life lead exposure in children include ADHD, conduct disorder, aggression and delinquency, impaired dental health, and delayed sexual maturation. Studies employing neuroimaging modalities such as volumetric, diffusion tensor, and functional MRI are providing insights into the neural bases of the cognitive impairments associated with greater lead exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)
Open AccessReview Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2675-2691; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072675
Received: 19 May 2011 / Revised: 22 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products), considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS). These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Environmental Research and Public Health)
Figures

Open AccessReview Genetic Risk for Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2747-2757; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072747
Received: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 30 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years many studies have examined the genetic predisposition to pancreatic diseases. Pancreatic disease of an alcoholic etiology was determined to be a multi-factorial disease, where environmental factors interact with the genetic profile of the individual. In this review we discuss [...] Read more.
In recent years many studies have examined the genetic predisposition to pancreatic diseases. Pancreatic disease of an alcoholic etiology was determined to be a multi-factorial disease, where environmental factors interact with the genetic profile of the individual. In this review we discuss the main results from studies examining the frequency of genetic mutations in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessReview The Search for Reliable Biomarkers of Disease in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and Other Environmental Intolerances
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2770-2797; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072770
Received: 11 April 2011 / Revised: 10 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 1 July 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whilst facing a worldwide fast increase of food and environmental allergies, the medical community is also confronted with another inhomogeneous group of environment-associated disabling conditions, including multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, electric hypersensitivity, amalgam disease and others. These share [...] Read more.
Whilst facing a worldwide fast increase of food and environmental allergies, the medical community is also confronted with another inhomogeneous group of environment-associated disabling conditions, including multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, electric hypersensitivity, amalgam disease and others. These share the features of poly-symptomatic multi-organ cutaneous and systemic manifestations, with postulated inherited/acquired impaired metabolism of chemical/physical/nutritional xenobiotics, triggering adverse reactions at exposure levels far below toxicologically-relevant values, often in the absence of clear-cut allergologic and/or immunologic involvement. Due to the lack of proven pathogenic mechanisms generating measurable disease biomarkers, these environmental hypersensitivities are generally ignored by sanitary and social systems, as psychogenic or “medically unexplained symptoms”. The uncontrolled application of diagnostic and treatment protocols not corresponding to acceptable levels of validation, safety, and clinical efficacy, to a steadily increasing number of patients demanding assistance, occurs in many countries in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Here we revise available information supporting the organic nature of these clinical conditions. Following intense research on gene polymorphisms of phase I/II detoxification enzyme genes, so far statistically inconclusive, epigenetic and metabolic factors are under investigation, in particular free radical/antioxidant homeostasis disturbances. The finding of relevant alterations of catalase, glutathione-transferase and peroxidase detoxifying activities significantly correlating with clinical manifestations of MCS, has recently registered some progress towards the identification of reliable biomarkers of disease onset, progression, and treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Food Allergy)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2854-2875; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072854
Received: 3 June 2011 / Revised: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on [...] Read more.
The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessReview Alcohol Consumption and Oxidative DNA Damage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2895-2906; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072895
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 5 July 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on cancer risk, we measured oxidative DNA damage and its repair activity in the livers and esophagi of rats fed with ethanol. Using our previously designed protocol for feeding rats with a high concentration of [...] Read more.
To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on cancer risk, we measured oxidative DNA damage and its repair activity in the livers and esophagi of rats fed with ethanol. Using our previously designed protocol for feeding rats with a high concentration of ethanol, we examined the effects of ethanol consumption on 8-oxo-Gua generation and repair activity in the livers and esophagi of rats. We found that a high concentration of ethanol accompanied with a vitamin-depleted diet increased 8-oxo-Gua and its repair activity. 8-Oxo-Gua is known to induce point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis. Therefore, these results suggested that a high concentration of ethanol and an irregular diet increased liver and esophageal cancer risk. On the other hand, we showed that a low concentration of ethanol decreased 8-oxo-Gua and its repair activity in the livers of mice treated with a carcinogen. Taken together, the effects of ethanol consumption on cancer risk depend on the ethanol concentration and the diet pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Features of Microglia and Neuroinflammation Relevant to Environmental Exposure and Neurotoxicity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2980-3018; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072980
Received: 14 June 2011 / Revised: 5 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 64 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are [...] Read more.
Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are distinct from other tissue macrophages due to their relatively quiescent phenotype and tight regulation by the CNS microenvironment. Microglia actively survey the surrounding parenchyma and respond rapidly to changes such that any disruption to neural architecture or function can contribute to the loss in regulation of the microglia phenotype. In many models of neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, early events of synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are accompanied by an inflammatory response including activation of microglia, perivascular monocytes, and recruitment of leukocytes. In culture, microglia have been shown to be capable of releasing several potentially cytotoxic substances, such as reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, arachidonic acid derivatives, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines; however, they also produce various neurotrophic factors and quench damage from free radicals and excitotoxins. As the primary source for pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia are implicated as pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes whereby subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. For any evaluation of neuroinflammation and microglial responses, within the framework of neurotoxicity or degeneration, one key question in determining the consequence of neuroinflammation is whether the response is an initiating event or the consequence of tissue damage. As examples of environmental exposure-related neuroinflammation in the literature, we provide an evaluation of data on manganese and diesel exhaust particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)

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