Next Article in Journal
Use of a Deuterated Internal Standard with Pyrolysis-GC/MS Dimeric Marker Analysis to Quantify Tire Tread Particles in the Environment
Previous Article in Journal
Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001–2006
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 4017-4032; doi:10.3390/ijerph9114017
Article

Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

 and
*
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 11 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [336 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments.
Keywords: real-time RT-PCR; enteric RNA viruses; surface waters; detection; quantification; hepatitis A virus; rotaviruses; enteroviruses real-time RT-PCR; enteric RNA viruses; surface waters; detection; quantification; hepatitis A virus; rotaviruses; enteroviruses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Chigor, V.N.; Okoh, A.I. Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4017-4032.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert