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Viruses 2013, 5(11), 2659-2678; doi:10.3390/v5112659

Involvement of Eukaryotic Small RNA Pathways in Host Defense and Viral Pathogenesis

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and miRNAs)
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Post-transcriptional gene regulation by small RNAs is now established as an important branch of the gene regulatory system. Many different classes of small RNAs have been discovered; among these are short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs). Though differences in the processing and function of small RNAs exist between plants and animals, both groups utilize small RNA-mediated gene regulation in response to pathogens. Host encoded miRNAs and siRNAs are generated from viral RNA function in host defense and pathogenic resistance in plants. In animals, miRNAs are key regulators in both immune system development and in immune function. Pathogens, in particular viruses, have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host’s small RNA-mediated regulatory system. Overall, small RNAs are a major component of host defense and immunity in eukaryotes. The goal of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the involvement of eukaryotic small RNA pathways in host defense and viral pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: small RNA; immunity; pathogens small RNA; immunity; pathogens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hicks, J.; Liu, H.-C. Involvement of Eukaryotic Small RNA Pathways in Host Defense and Viral Pathogenesis. Viruses 2013, 5, 2659-2678.

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