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Viruses 2017, 9(5), 120; doi:10.3390/v9050120

Differentiation and Structure in Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus Populations

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 601 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, USA
3
Department of Microbiome Science, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstraße 35, Tübingen 72076, Germany
4
Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W Gregory Dr, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tessa E.F. Quax, Matthias G. Fischer and Laurent Debarbieux
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3099 KB, uploaded 21 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

In the past decade, molecular surveys of viral diversity have revealed that viruses are the most diverse and abundant biological entities on Earth. In culture, however, most viral isolates that infect microbes are represented by a few variants isolated on type strains, limiting our ability to study how natural variation affects virus-host interactions in the laboratory. We screened a set of 137 hot spring samples for viruses that infect a geographically diverse panel of the hyperthemophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. We isolated and characterized eight SIRVs (Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped viruses) from two different regions within Yellowstone National Park (USA). Comparative genomics revealed that all SIRV sequenced isolates share 30 core genes that represent 50–60% of the genome. The core genome phylogeny, as well as the distribution of variable genes (shared by some but not all SIRVs) and the signatures of host-virus interactions recorded on the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) repeat-spacer arrays of S. islandicus hosts, identify different SIRV lineages, each associated with a different geographic location. Moreover, our studies reveal that SIRV core genes do not appear to be under diversifying selection and thus we predict that the abundant and diverse variable genes govern the coevolutionary arms race between SIRVs and their hosts. View Full-Text
Keywords: host-virus interactions; Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus; archaeal virus host-virus interactions; Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus; archaeal virus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bautista, M.A.; Black, J.A.; Youngblut, N.D.; Whitaker, R.J. Differentiation and Structure in Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus Populations. Viruses 2017, 9, 120.

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