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Pharmaceutics, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2010), Pages 1-77

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Research

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Formulation and Process of Lyophilised Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) Using Novel Amino Acid Combination
Pharmaceutics 2010, 2(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics2010001
Received: 26 November 2009 / Revised: 15 December 2009 / Accepted: 30 December 2009 / Published: 4 January 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have achieved a great success in overcoming dysphagia associated with conventional solid dosage forms. However, the extensive use of saccharides within the formulation limits their use in treatment of chronic illnesses. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of
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Lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have achieved a great success in overcoming dysphagia associated with conventional solid dosage forms. However, the extensive use of saccharides within the formulation limits their use in treatment of chronic illnesses. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using combination of proline and serine to formulate zero sacharide ODTs and investigates the effect of freezing protocol on sublimation rate and tablets characteristics. The results showed that inclusion of proline and serine improved ODT properties when compared to individual counterparts. Additionally, annealing the ODTs facilitated the sublimation process and shortened the disintegration time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What's on Board in Pharmaceutics)
Open AccessArticle Determination of the Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Salicylamine, a Potent γ-Ketoaldehyde Scavenger, by LC/MS/MS
Pharmaceutics 2010, 2(1), 18-29; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics2010018
Received: 16 December 2009 / Revised: 13 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Levels of reactive γ-ketoaldehydes derived from arachidonate increase in diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative injury. To assess the biological importance of these γ-ketoaldehydes, we previously identified salicylamine as an effective γ-ketoaldehyde scavenger in vitro and in cells. To determine if salicylamine could
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Levels of reactive γ-ketoaldehydes derived from arachidonate increase in diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative injury. To assess the biological importance of these γ-ketoaldehydes, we previously identified salicylamine as an effective γ-ketoaldehyde scavenger in vitro and in cells. To determine if salicylamine could be administered in vivo, we developed an LC/MS/MS assay to measure salicylamine in plasma and tissues. In mice, half-life (t1/2) was 62 minutes. Drinking water supplementation (1-10 g/L) generated tissue concentrations (10-500 μM) within the range previously shown to inhibit γ-ketoaldehydes in cells. Therefore, oral administration of salicylamine can be used to assess the contribution of γ-ketoaldehydes in animal models of disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Hyphenated Chromatography Techniques in Pharmaceutics)
Open AccessArticle Quantification of Process Induced Disorder in Milled Samples Using Different Analytical Techniques
Pharmaceutics 2010, 2(1), 30-49; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics2010030
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 February 2010 / Published: 16 February 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods
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The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods and indomethacin and simvastatin were chosen as the model compounds. These compounds partly converted from crystalline to disordered forms by milling. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to create calibration models for the XRPD and Raman data, which were subsequently used to quantify the milling-induced crystalline disorder/ amorphousness under different process conditions. In the DSC measurements the change in heat capacity at the glass transition was used for quantification. Differently prepared amorphous indomethacin standards (prepared by either melt quench cooling or cryo milling) were compared by principal component analysis (PCA) to account for the fact that the choice of standard ultimately influences the quantification outcome. Finally, the calibration models were built using binary mixtures of crystalline and quench cooled amorphous drug materials. The results imply that the outcome with respect to crystalline disorder for milled drugs depends on the analytical method used and the calibration standard chosen as well as on the drug itself. From the data presented here, it appears that XRPD tends to give a higher percentage of crystalline disorder than Raman spectroscopy and DSC for the same samples. For the samples milled under the harshest milling conditions applied (60 min, sixty 4 mm balls, 25 Hz) a crystalline disorder/ amorphous content of 44.0% (XRPD), 10.8% (Raman spectroscopy) and 17.8% (DSC) were detected for indomethacin. For simvastatin 18.3% (XRPD), 15.5% (Raman spectroscopy) and 0% (DSC, no glass transition) crystalline disorder/ amorphousness were detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What's on Board in Pharmaceutics)
Open AccessArticle Ingredient Consistency of Commercially Available Polyphenol and Tocopherol Nutraceuticals
Pharmaceutics 2010, 2(1), 50-60; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics2010050
Received: 28 January 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 4 March 2010 / Published: 8 March 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Label claims of vitamin E succinate and polyphenolic nutraceuticals are assessed. A validated HPLC method was utilized to assess vitamin E succinate products. Three novel LC/MS methods were used to assess the polyphenols, pterostilbene, phloretin, and myricetin, in dietary supplements. The amount of
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Label claims of vitamin E succinate and polyphenolic nutraceuticals are assessed. A validated HPLC method was utilized to assess vitamin E succinate products. Three novel LC/MS methods were used to assess the polyphenols, pterostilbene, phloretin, and myricetin, in dietary supplements. The amount of vitamin E succinate varied from 0-130% of the stated label content with two products containing vitamin E acetate rather than vitamin E succinate. Expected polyphenols were found in 7 of the 8 supplement products. None of the polyphenol supplements contained content within 100-120% of label claims. The present study indicates a lack of uniformity in nutraceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What's on Board in Pharmaceutics)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Pregnenolone 16α-Carbonitrile Dosing on Digoxin Pharmacokinetics and Intestinal Absorption in the Rat
Pharmaceutics 2010, 2(1), 61-77; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics2010061
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 5 March 2010 / Accepted: 11 March 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of Pgp induction in rats by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) (3 days, 35 mg/kg/d, p.o.) on digoxin pharmacokinetics and intestinal transport has been assessed. After intravenous or oral digoxin dosing the arterial and hepatic portal vein (oral) AUC(0-24h) were significantly reduced
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The effect of Pgp induction in rats by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) (3 days, 35 mg/kg/d, p.o.) on digoxin pharmacokinetics and intestinal transport has been assessed. After intravenous or oral digoxin dosing the arterial and hepatic portal vein (oral) AUC(0-24h) were significantly reduced by PCN pre-treatment. Biliary digoxin clearance increased 2-fold following PCN treatment. PCN significantly increased net digoxin secretion (2.05- and 4.5-fold respectively) in ileum and colon but not in duodenum or jejunum. This increased secretion correlated with increased Pgp protein expression in ileum and colon. Both intestinal and biliary excretion therefore contribute to altered digoxin disposition following PCN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What's on Board in Pharmaceutics)
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