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Pharmaceutics 2013, 5(1), 115-126; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics5010115

Analytical Electron Microscopy for Characterization of Fluid or Semi-Solid Multiphase Systems Containing Nanoparticulate Material

1
Research Platform Characterisation of Drug Delivery Systems on Skin and Investigation of Involved Mechanisms, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Centre for Electron Microscopy Graz and Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research (FELMI-ZFE), Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 30 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery Using Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

The analysis of nanomaterials in pharmaceutical or cosmetic preparations is an important aspect both in formulation development and quality control of marketed products. Despite the increased popularity of nanoparticulate compounds especially in dermal preparations such as emulsions, methods and protocols of analysis for the characterization of such systems are scarce. This work combines an original sample preparation procedure along with different methods of analytical electron microscopy for the comprehensive analysis of fluid or semi-solid dermal preparations containing nanoparticulate material. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and high resolution imaging were performed on model emulsions and a marketed product to reveal different structural aspects of both the emulsion bulk phase and incorporated nanosized material. An innovative analytical approach for the determination of the physical stability of the emulsion under investigation is presented. Advantages and limitations of the employed analytical imaging techniques are highlighted.
Keywords: nanoparticles; nanoemulsion; emulsion; analytical electron microscopy; energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; electron energy loss spectroscopy nanoparticles; nanoemulsion; emulsion; analytical electron microscopy; energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; electron energy loss spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klang, V.; Valenta, C.; Matsko, N.B. Analytical Electron Microscopy for Characterization of Fluid or Semi-Solid Multiphase Systems Containing Nanoparticulate Material. Pharmaceutics 2013, 5, 115-126.

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