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Catalysts 2017, 7(12), 380; doi:10.3390/catal7120380

Direct Carboxylation of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H Bonds with CO2 by Transition-Metal-Catalyzed and Base-Mediated Reactions

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari “A. Moro”, v. Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017

Abstract

This review focuses on recent advances in the field of direct carboxylation reactions of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H bonds using CO2 encompassing both transition-metal-catalysis and base-mediated approach. The review is not intended to be comprehensive, but aims to analyze representative examples from the literature, including transition-metal catalyzed carboxylation of benzylic and allylic C(sp3)-H functionalities using CO2 which is at a “nascent stage”. Examples of light-driven carboxylation reactions of unactivated C(sp3)-H bonds are also considered. Concerning C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H deprotonation reactions mediated by bases with subsequent carboxylation of the carbon nucleophile, few examples of catalytic processes are reported in the literature. In spite of this, several examples of base-promoted reactions integrating “base recycling” or “base regeneration (through electrosynthesis)” steps have been reported. Representative examples of synthetically efficient, base-promoted processes are included in the review. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon dioxide; C-H activation; synthesis of carboxylic acids; transition-metal catalysis; Brønsted-base catalysis; carboxylation reactions carbon dioxide; C-H activation; synthesis of carboxylic acids; transition-metal catalysis; Brønsted-base catalysis; carboxylation reactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tommasi, I. Direct Carboxylation of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H Bonds with CO2 by Transition-Metal-Catalyzed and Base-Mediated Reactions. Catalysts 2017, 7, 380.

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