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Cells 2014, 3(2), 438-454; doi:10.3390/cells3020438

HSV-1 ICP0: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Counteracts Host Intrinsic and Innate Immunity

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 20 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Ubiquitination)
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Abstract

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is required for efficient lytic viral replication and regulates the switch between the lytic and latent states of HSV-1. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0 directs the proteasomal degradation of several cellular targets, allowing the virus to counteract different cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how ICP0’s E3 ubiquitin ligase activity inactivates the host intrinsic defenses, such as nuclear domain 10 (ND10), SUMO, and the DNA damage response to HSV-1 infection. In addition, we will examine ICP0’s capacity to impair the activation of interferon (innate) regulatory mediators that include IFI16 (IFN γ-inducible protein 16), MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), and Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like protein). We will also consider how ICP0 allows HSV-1 to evade activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) inflammatory signaling pathway. Finally, ICP0’s paradoxical relationship with USP7 (ubiquitin specific protease 7) and its roles in intrinsic and innate immune responses to HSV-1 infection will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: herpes simplex virus; HSV; E3 ubiquitin ligase; infected cell protein 0; ICP0; intrinsic immunity; innate immunity herpes simplex virus; HSV; E3 ubiquitin ligase; infected cell protein 0; ICP0; intrinsic immunity; innate immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Perusina Lanfranca, M.; Mostafa, H.H.; Davido, D.J. HSV-1 ICP0: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Counteracts Host Intrinsic and Innate Immunity. Cells 2014, 3, 438-454.

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