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Symmetry 2017, 9(4), 54; doi:10.3390/sym9040054

An Efficient VQ Codebook Search Algorithm Applied to AMR-WB Speech Coding

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, 57, Section 2, Zhongshan Road, Taiping District, Taichung 41170, Taiwan
Academic Editor: Vladimir Shpilrain
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [633 KB, uploaded 12 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB) speech codec is widely used in modern mobile communication systems for high speech quality in handheld devices. Nonetheless, a major disadvantage is that vector quantization (VQ) of immittance spectral frequency (ISF) coefficients takes a considerable computational load in the AMR-WB coding. Accordingly, a binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ) algorithm is adopted to efficiently reduce the complexity of ISF quantization in AMR-WB. This search algorithm is done through a fast locating technique combined with lookup tables, such that an input vector is efficiently assigned to a subspace where relatively few codeword searches are required to be executed. In terms of overall search performance, this work is experimentally validated as a superior search algorithm relative to a multiple triangular inequality elimination (MTIE), a TIE with dynamic and intersection mechanisms (DI-TIE), and an equal-average equal-variance equal-norm nearest neighbor search (EEENNS) approach. With a full search algorithm as a benchmark for overall search load comparison, this work provides an 87% search load reduction at a threshold of quantization accuracy of 0.96, a figure far beyond 55% in the MTIE, 76% in the EEENNS approach, and 83% in the DI-TIE approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: vector quantization (VQ); binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ); immittance spectral frequency (ISF); adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB); speech codec; VoIP vector quantization (VQ); binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ); immittance spectral frequency (ISF); adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB); speech codec; VoIP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yeh, C.-Y. An Efficient VQ Codebook Search Algorithm Applied to AMR-WB Speech Coding. Symmetry 2017, 9, 54.

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