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Animals, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2011), Pages 326-446

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia
Animals 2011, 1(4), 343-365; doi:10.3390/ani1040343
Received: 18 September 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock [...] Read more.
This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Livestock Management)
Open AccessArticle Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010
Animals 2011, 1(4), 396-401; doi:10.3390/ani1040396
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV) in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3) and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8), skunks (OR = 8.0), gray foxes (OR = 21.3), red foxes (OR = 10.4), woodchucks (OR = 4.7) and coyotes (OR = 27.6). While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001). The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases of Companion Animals)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of an Imported Case of Rabies in a Juvenile Dog with Atypical Presentation
Animals 2011, 1(4), 402-413; doi:10.3390/ani1040402
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
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Abstract
Movement of dogs between rabies-endemic and rabies-free countries carries the inherent risk of introducing the disease. In April of 2008, a juvenile dog was imported to the UK from Sri Lanka. It died shortly after transfer to a quarantine facility in the [...] Read more.
Movement of dogs between rabies-endemic and rabies-free countries carries the inherent risk of introducing the disease. In April of 2008, a juvenile dog was imported to the UK from Sri Lanka. It died shortly after transfer to a quarantine facility in the south-east of England following a short history of diarrhoea and convulsions but no overt signs of aggression. Subsequent investigation confirmed that rabies was the cause of death. Rabies virus was isolated from brain samples taken from the dog and the subsequent phylogenetic investigation confirmed that the genomic sequence from this virus shared over 99% homology with endemic rabies viruses from Sri Lanka. Histological examination of the brain demonstrated clear signs of encephalitis and rabies antigenic labeling in numerous neurons. In this particular case, Negri bodies were absent. As this case was diagnosed in a quarantine facility, the ‘rabies-free’ status of the UK was un-affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases of Companion Animals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods
Animals 2011, 1(4), 414-432; doi:10.3390/ani1040414
Received: 29 October 2011 / Revised: 19 November 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published: 29 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not [...] Read more.
In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Vaccines)
Open AccessArticle Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle
Animals 2011, 1(4), 433-446; doi:10.3390/ani1040433
Received: 28 October 2011 / Revised: 1 December 2011 / Accepted: 1 December 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and [...] Read more.
Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Livestock Management)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health
Animals 2011, 1(4), 326-342; doi:10.3390/ani1040326
Received: 15 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part [...] Read more.
Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases of Companion Animals)
Open AccessReview Welfare of Aged Horses
Animals 2011, 1(4), 366-376; doi:10.3390/ani1040366
Received: 5 September 2011 / Revised: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or [...] Read more.
Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessReview Zoonotic Poxviruses Associated with Companion Animals
Animals 2011, 1(4), 377-395; doi:10.3390/ani1040377
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion [...] Read more.
Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as sources of poxvirus transmission to people. In addition, the trend among hobbyists to keep livestock (such as goats) in urban and semi-urban areas has contributed to increased parapoxvirus exposures among people not traditionally considered at high risk. Despite the historic notoriety of poxviruses and the diseases they cause, poxvirus infections are often missed. Delays in diagnosing poxvirus-associated infections in companion animals can lead to inadvertent human exposures. Delays in confirming human infections can result in inappropriate treatment or prolonged recovery. Early recognition of poxvirus-associated infections and application of appropriate preventive measures can reduce the spread of virus between companion animals and their owners. This review will discuss the epidemiology and clinical features associated with the zoonotic poxvirus infections most commonly associated with companion animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases of Companion Animals)

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