Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-25
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Biomaterials in 2017
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jfb9010005
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Journal of Functional Biomaterials maintains high quality standards for its published papers[...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Functionalization of Cotton Fabrics with Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles for Transdermal Release of Melatonin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jfb9010001
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug delivery by means of transdermal patches raised great interest as a non-invasive and sustained therapy. The present research aimed to design a patch for transdermal delivery of melatonin, which was encapsulated in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) by employing flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) technique.
[...] Read more.
Drug delivery by means of transdermal patches raised great interest as a non-invasive and sustained therapy. The present research aimed to design a patch for transdermal delivery of melatonin, which was encapsulated in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) by employing flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) technique. Melatonin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were successfully prepared with precise control of the particle size by effectively tuning process parameters. The effect of process parameters on the particle size was assessed by dynamic light scattering for producing particles with suitable size for transdermal applications. Quantification of encapsulated melatonin was performed by mean of UV spectrophotometry, obtaining the estimation of encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading capacity (LC%). An EE% higher than 80% was obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of NPs was performed to confirm effective encapsulation in the solid phase. Cotton fabrics, functionalized by imbibition with the nano-suspension, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to check morphology, adhesion and distribution of the NPs on the surface; melatonin transdermal release from the functionalized fabric was performed via Franz’s cells by using a synthetic membrane. NPs were uniformly distributed on cotton fibres, as confirmed by SEM observations; the release test showed a continuous and controlled release whose kinetics were satisfactorily described by Baker–Lonsdale model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Healthcare)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (ASTM F75) on Bone Ingrowth in an Experimental Animal Model
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jfb9010002
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
PDF Full-text (10154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cr-Co-Mo (ASTM F75) alloy has been used in the medical environment, but its use as a rigid barrier membrane for supporting bone augmentation therapies has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, Cr-Co-Mo membranes of different heights were placed in New Zealand
[...] Read more.
Cr-Co-Mo (ASTM F75) alloy has been used in the medical environment, but its use as a rigid barrier membrane for supporting bone augmentation therapies has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, Cr-Co-Mo membranes of different heights were placed in New Zealand white, male rabbit tibiae to assess the quality and volume of new bone formation, without the use of additional factors. Animals were euthanized at 20, 30, 40, and 60 days. Bone formation was observed in all of the cases, although the tibiae implanted with the standard membranes reached an augmentation of bone volume that agreed with the density values over the timecourse. In all cases, plasmatic exudate was found under the membrane and in contact with the new bone. Histological analysis indicated the presence of a large number of chondroblasts adjacent to the inner membrane surface in the first stages, and osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed under them. The bone formation was appositional. The Cr-Co-Mo alloy provides a scaffold with an adequate microenvironment for vertical bone volume augmentation, and the physical dimensions and disposition of the membrane itself influence the new bone formation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effect of Cryopreserved Human Placental Tissues on Biofilm Formation of Wound-Associated Pathogens
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jfb9010003
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
PDF Full-text (2915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and
[...] Read more.
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, the two most prominent pathogens associated with chronic wounds. Firstly, we showed that, like CVAM, CVUT released antibacterial activity against multiple bacterial pathogens and the devitalization of CVUT reduced its antibacterial activity. The biofilm formation was then measured using a high throughput method and an ex vivo porcine dermal tissue model. We demonstrate that the formation of biofilm was significantly reduced in the presence of CVAM- or CVUT-derived conditioned media compared to control assay medium. The formation of P. aeruginosa biofilm on CVAM-conditioned medium saturated porcine dermal tissues was reduced 97% compared with the biofilm formation on the control medium saturated dermal tissues. The formation of S. auerus biofilm on CVUT-conditioned medium saturated dermal tissues was reduced 72% compared with the biofilm formation on the control tissues. This study is the first to show that human cryopreserved viable placental tissues release factors that inhibit biofilm formation. Our results provide an explanation for the in vivo observation of their ability to support wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of PLGA Films Loaded with 4-Hexylresorcinol
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jfb9010004
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Profound screening and evaluation methods for biocide-releasing polymer films are crucial for predicting applicability and therapeutic outcome of these drug delivery systems. For this purpose, we developed an agar overlay assay embedding biopolymer composite films in a seeded microbial lawn. By combining this
[...] Read more.
Profound screening and evaluation methods for biocide-releasing polymer films are crucial for predicting applicability and therapeutic outcome of these drug delivery systems. For this purpose, we developed an agar overlay assay embedding biopolymer composite films in a seeded microbial lawn. By combining this approach with model-dependent analysis for agar diffusion, antimicrobial potency of the entrapped drug can be calculated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, the topical antiseptic 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) was incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films at different loadings up to 3.7 mg/cm2 surface area through a solvent casting technique. The antimicrobial activity of 4-HR released from these composite films was assessed against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram–positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi by the proposed assay. All the microbial strains tested were susceptible to PLGA-4-HR films with MIC values down to 0.4% (w/w). The presented approach serves as a reliable method in screening and quantifying the antimicrobial activity of polymer composite films. Moreover, 4-HR-loaded PLGA films are a promising biomaterial that may find future application in the biomedical and packaging sector. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Trapezium Bone Density—A Comparison of Measurements by DXA and CT
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jfb9010009
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium
[...] Read more.
Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium bone density. The aim of this study was to: (1) determine the correlation between measurements of bone mineral density of the trapezium obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans by a circumference method and a new inner-ellipse method; and (2) to compare those to measurements of bone density obtained by computerized tomography (CT)-scans in Hounsfield units (HU). We included 71 hands from 59 patients with a mean age of 59 years (43–77). All patients had Eaton–Glickel stage II–IV trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint osteoarthritis, were under evaluation for trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement, and underwent DXA and CT wrist scans. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.94) between DXA bone mineral density measures using the circumference and the inner-ellipse method. There was a moderate correlation between bone density measures obtained by DXA- and CT-scans with (r = 0.49) for the circumference method, and (r = 0.55) for the inner-ellipse method. DXA may be used in pre-operative evaluation of the trapezium bone quality, and the simpler DXA inner-ellipse measurement method can replace the DXA circumference method in estimation of bone density of the trapezium. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Route and Type of Formulation Administered Influences the Absorption and Disposition of Vitamin B12 Levels in Serum
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 12; doi:10.3390/jfb9010012
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The administration of biological compounds that optimize health benefits is an ever-evolving therapeutic goal. Pharmaceutical and other adjunctive biological compounds have been administered via many different routes in order to produce a systemic pharmacological effect. The article summarizes the findings from an Australian
[...] Read more.
The administration of biological compounds that optimize health benefits is an ever-evolving therapeutic goal. Pharmaceutical and other adjunctive biological compounds have been administered via many different routes in order to produce a systemic pharmacological effect. The article summarizes the findings from an Australian comparative study in adults administered vitamin B12 through different oral delivery platforms. A total of 16 subjects (9 males, 7 females) voluntarily partook in a comparative clinical study of five different vitamin B12 formulations across a six-month period, completing 474 person-hours of cumulative contribution, that was equivalent to an n = 60 participation. A nanoparticle delivered vitamin B12 through a NanoCelle platform was observed to be significantly (p < 0.05) better absorbed than all other dose equivalent platforms (i.e., tablets, emulsions, or liposomes) from baseline to 1, 3, and 6 h of the study period. The nanoparticle platform delivered vitamin B12 demonstrated an enhanced and significant absorption profile as exemplified by rapid systemic detection (i.e., 1 h from baseline) when administered to the oro-buccal mucosa with no reports of any adverse events of toxicity. The nanoparticle formulation of methylcobalamin (1000 µg/dose in 0.3 mL volume) showed bioequivalence only with a chewable-dissolvable tablet that administered a five times higher dose of methylcobalamin (5000 µg) per tablet. This study has demonstrated that an active metabolite embedded in a functional biomaterial (NanoCelle) may constitute a drug delivery method that can better access the circulatory system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 15; doi:10.3390/jfb9010015
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
PDF Full-text (5565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending) and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Antimicrobial Monomers for Polymeric Dental Restoratives: Cytotoxicity and Physicochemical Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 20; doi:10.3390/jfb9010020
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
PDF Full-text (3066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A trend for the next generation of polymeric dental restoratives is to incorporate multifunctional capabilities to regulate microbial growth and remineralize tooth surfaces. Polymerizable 2-(methacryloyloxy)-N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethylethan-1-aminium bromide (IDMA1) and N,N′-([1,1′-biphenyl]-2,2′-diylbis(methylene))bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)-N,N-dimethylethan-1-aminium) bromide
[...] Read more.
A trend for the next generation of polymeric dental restoratives is to incorporate multifunctional capabilities to regulate microbial growth and remineralize tooth surfaces. Polymerizable 2-(methacryloyloxy)-N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethylethan-1-aminium bromide (IDMA1) and N,N′-([1,1′-biphenyl]-2,2′-diylbis(methylene))bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)-N,N-dimethylethan-1-aminium) bromide (IDMA2), intended for utilization in bi-functional antimicrobial and remineralizing composites, were synthesized, purified with an ethanol-diethyl ether-hexane solvent system, and validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. When incorporated into light-curable urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/polyethylene glycol-extended UDMA (PEG-U)/ethyl 2-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate (EHMA) (assigned UPE) resins, IDMAs did not affect the overall resins’ hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity balance (water contact angle: 60.8–65.5°). The attained degrees of vinyl conversion (DVC) were consistently higher in both IDMA-containing copolymers and their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites (up to 5% and 20%, respectively) reaching 92.5% in IDMA2 formulations. Notably, these high DVCs values were attained without an excessive increase in polymerization stress. The observed reduction in biaxial flexure strength of UPE-IDMA ACP composites should not prevent further evaluation of these materials as multifunctional Class V restoratives. In direct contact with human gingival fibroblasts, at biologically relevant concentrations, IDMAs did not adversely affect cell viability or their metabolic activity. Ion release from the composites was indicative of their strong remineralization potential. The above, early-phase biocompatibility and physicochemical tests justify further evaluation of these experimental materials to identify formulation(s) suitable for clinical testing. Successful completion is expected to yield a new class of restoratives with well-controlled bio-function, which will physicochemically, mechanically, and biologically outperform the conventional Class V restoratives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials and Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Electron Beam Immobilization of Novel Antimicrobial, Short Peptide Motifs Leads to Membrane Surfaces with Promising Antibacterial Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 21; doi:10.3390/jfb9010021
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
PDF Full-text (4950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the efficacy of electron beam irradiation versus chemical coupling for yielding polyethersulfone (PES) membranes with antibacterial properties was investigated. For the surface coating, a recently discovered lead compound, IL-KKA, comprising a short peptide sequence functionalized with imidazolium groups, was used.
[...] Read more.
In this study, the efficacy of electron beam irradiation versus chemical coupling for yielding polyethersulfone (PES) membranes with antibacterial properties was investigated. For the surface coating, a recently discovered lead compound, IL-KKA, comprising a short peptide sequence functionalized with imidazolium groups, was used. For better integration within the membrane, several novel variants of IL-KKA were generated. Membrane immobilization was achieved using different doses of electron beam irradiation and NHS/EDC chemical coupling. Physicochemical characterization of the coated membranes was performed by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that electron beam irradiation is as effective and gentle as chemical coupling using the NHS/EDC method. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the obtained membranes exhibit promising antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. In summary, the technique presented herein might be promising as a template for developing future anti-biofilm devices. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle First Results of a New Vacuum Plasma Sprayed (VPS) Titanium-Coated Carbon/PEEK Composite Cage for Lumbar Interbody Fusion
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 23; doi:10.3390/jfb9010023
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a new vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) titanium-coated carbon/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage under first use clinical conditions. Forty-two patients who underwent a one or two segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure with a
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a new vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) titanium-coated carbon/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage under first use clinical conditions. Forty-two patients who underwent a one or two segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure with a new Ca/PEEK composite cage between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively identified by an electronic patient chart review. Fusion rates (using X-ray), patient’s satisfaction, and complications were followed up for two years. A total of 90.4% of the patients were pain-free and satisfied after a follow up (FU) period of 29.1 ± 9 (range 24–39) months. A mean increase of 3° in segmental lordosis in the early period (p = 0.002) returned to preoperative levels at final follow-ups. According to the Bridwell classification, the mean 24-month G1 fusion rate was calculated as 93.6% and the G2 as 6.4%. No radiolucency around the cage (G3) or clear pseudarthrosis could be seen (G4). In conclusion, biological properties of the inert, hydrophobic surface, which is the main disadvantage of PEEK, can be improved with VPS titanium coating, so that the carbon/PEEK composite cage, which has great advantages in respect of biomechanical properties, can be used safely in TLIF surgery. High fusion rates, good clinical outcome, and low implant-related complication rates without the need to use rhBMP or additional iliac bone graft can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Spinal Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Calcium Phosphates as Delivery Systems for Bisphosphonates
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jfb9010006
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
PDF Full-text (2735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are
[...] Read more.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are ideal delivery systems for local administration of BPs to bone, which is aimed to avoid/limit the undesirable side effects of their prolonged systemic use. Direct synthesis in aqueous medium and chemisorptions from solution are the two main routes proposed to synthesize BP functionalized calcium phosphates. The present review overviews the information acquired through the studies on the interaction between bisphosphonate molecules and calcium phosphates. Moreover, particular attention is addressed to some important recent achievements on the applications of BP functionalized calcium phosphates as biomaterials for bone substitution/repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV) Bone: An Overview
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jfb9010007
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone) conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification), in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV) bone are described in a general manner in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview DNA-Based Single-Molecule Electronics: From Concept to Function
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jfb9010008
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
PDF Full-text (10869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability
[...] Read more.
Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability of DNA provide overwhelming freedom for the design and fabrication of molecular-scale devices. In the past two decades DNA has therefore attracted inordinate amounts of attention in molecular electronics. This review gives a brief survey of recent experimental progress in DNA-based single-molecule electronics with special focus on single-molecule conductance and I–V characteristics of individual DNA molecules. Existing challenges and exciting future opportunities are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Platelet Rich Plasma: New Insights for Cutaneous Wound Healing Management
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jfb9010010
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
PDF Full-text (8678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The overall increase of chronic degenerative diseases associated with ageing makes wound care a tremendous socioeconomic burden. Thus, there is a growing need to develop novel wound healing therapies to improve cutaneous wound healing. The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular
[...] Read more.
The overall increase of chronic degenerative diseases associated with ageing makes wound care a tremendous socioeconomic burden. Thus, there is a growing need to develop novel wound healing therapies to improve cutaneous wound healing. The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular due to the low-invasive procedures needed to apply them. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is gaining interest due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate the wound healing process. The cytokines and growth factors forming PRP play a crucial role in the healing process. This article reviews the emerging field of skin wound regenerative therapies with particular emphasis on PRP and the role of growth factors in the wound healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Formulation of Poloxamers for Drug Delivery
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jfb9010011
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poloxamers, also known as Pluronics®, are block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), which have an amphiphilic character and useful association and adsorption properties emanating from this. Poloxamers find use in many applications that require solubilization or stabilization
[...] Read more.
Poloxamers, also known as Pluronics®, are block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), which have an amphiphilic character and useful association and adsorption properties emanating from this. Poloxamers find use in many applications that require solubilization or stabilization of compounds and also have notable physiological properties, including low toxicity. Accordingly, poloxamers serve well as excipients for pharmaceuticals. Current challenges facing nanomedicine revolve around the transport of typically water-insoluble drugs throughout the body, followed by targeted delivery. Judicious design of drug delivery systems leads to improved bioavailability, patient compliance and therapeutic outcomes. The rich phase behavior (micelles, hydrogels, lyotropic liquid crystals, etc.) of poloxamers makes them amenable to multiple types of processing and various product forms. In this review, we first present the general solution behavior of poloxamers, focusing on their self-assembly properties. This is followed by a discussion of how the self-assembly properties of poloxamers can be leveraged to encapsulate drugs using an array of processing techniques including direct solubilization, solvent displacement methods, emulsification and preparation of kinetically-frozen nanoparticles. Finally, we conclude with a summary and perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-assembly Smart Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Hydrogels for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery. Classification, Synthesis and Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/jfb9010013
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been
[...] Read more.
Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been generally limited to the delivery of hydrophilic drugs. However, as many of the new drugs coming to market are hydrophobic in nature, new approaches for integrating hydrophobic drugs into hydrogels should be developed. This article discusses the possible new ways to incorporate hydrophobic drugs within hydrogel structures that have been developed through research. This review describes hydrogel-based systems for hydrophobic compound delivery included in the literature. The section covers all the main types of hydrogels, including physical hydrogels and chemical hydrogels. Additionally, reported applications of these hydrogels are described in the subsequent sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Advances in Degradable Embolic Microspheres: A State of the Art Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 14; doi:10.3390/jfb9010014
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considerable efforts have been placed on the development of degradable microspheres for use in transarterial embolization indications. Using the guidance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) special controls document for the preclinical evaluation of vascular embolization devices, this review consolidates all
[...] Read more.
Considerable efforts have been placed on the development of degradable microspheres for use in transarterial embolization indications. Using the guidance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) special controls document for the preclinical evaluation of vascular embolization devices, this review consolidates all relevant data pertaining to novel degradable microsphere technologies for bland embolization into a single reference. This review emphasizes intended use, chemical composition, degradative mechanisms, and pre-clinical safety, efficacy, and performance, while summarizing the key advantages and disadvantages for each degradable technology that is currently under development for transarterial embolization. This review is intended to provide an inclusive reference for clinicians that may facilitate an understanding of clinical and technical concepts related to this field of interventional radiology. For materials scientists, this review highlights innovative devices and current evaluation methodologies (i.e., preclinical models), and is designed to be instructive in the development of innovative/new technologies and evaluation methodologies. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Carbon Nano-Allotrope/Magnetic Nanoparticle Hybrid Nanomaterials as T2 Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 16; doi:10.3390/jfb9010016
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials
[...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in biomaterial research in recent decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, as well as excellent biological compatibility. Researchers have employed various carbon nano-allotropes to develop hybrid MRI contrast agents for improved sensitivity. This review summarizes the new research progresses in carbon-based hybrid MRI contrast agents, especially those reported in the past five years. The review will only focus on T2-weighted MRI agents and will be categorized by the different carbon allotrope types and magnetic components. Considering the strong trend in recent bio-nanotechnology research towards multifunctional diagnosis and therapy, carbon-based MRI contrast agents integrated with other imaging modalities or therapeutic functions are also covered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 17; doi:10.3390/jfb9010017
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has
[...] Read more.
The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Modulation of Osteoclast Interactions with Orthopaedic Biomaterials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 18; doi:10.3390/jfb9010018
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomaterial integration in bone depends on bone remodelling at the bone-implant interface. Optimal balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts is crucial for successful implantation, especially in orthopaedic surgery. Most studies examined osteoblast differentiation on biomaterials, yet few research
[...] Read more.
Biomaterial integration in bone depends on bone remodelling at the bone-implant interface. Optimal balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts is crucial for successful implantation, especially in orthopaedic surgery. Most studies examined osteoblast differentiation on biomaterials, yet few research has been conducted to explore the effect of different orthopaedic implants on osteoclast development. This review covers, in detail, the biology of osteoclasts, in vitro models of osteoclasts, and modulation of osteoclast activity by different implant surfaces, bio-ceramics, and polymers. Studies show that surface topography influence osteoclastogenesis. For instance, metal implants with rough surfaces enhanced osteoclast activity, while smooth surfaces resulted in poor osteoclast differentiation. In addition, surface modification of implants with anti-osteoporotic drug further decreased osteoclast activity. In bioceramics, osteoclast development depended on different chemical compositions. Strontium-incorporated bioceramics decreased osteoclast development, whereas higher concentrations of silica enhanced osteoclast activity. Differences between natural and synthetic polymers also modulated osteoclastogenesis. Physiochemical properties of implants affect osteoclast activity. Hence, understanding osteoclast biology and its response to the natural microarchitecture of bone are indispensable to design suitable implant interfaces and scaffolds, which will stimulate osteoclasts in ways similar to that of native bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Critical Review on Metallic Glasses as Structural Materials for Cardiovascular Stent Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 19; doi:10.3390/jfb9010019
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
PDF Full-text (6242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional and mechanical properties of novel biomaterials must be carefully evaluated to guarantee long-term biocompatibility and structural integrity of implantable medical devices. Owing to the combination of metallic bonding and amorphous structure, metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit extraordinary properties superior to conventional crystalline metallic
[...] Read more.
Functional and mechanical properties of novel biomaterials must be carefully evaluated to guarantee long-term biocompatibility and structural integrity of implantable medical devices. Owing to the combination of metallic bonding and amorphous structure, metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit extraordinary properties superior to conventional crystalline metallic alloys, placing them at the frontier of biomaterials research. MGs have potential to improve corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, strength, and longevity of biomedical implants, and hence are promising materials for cardiovascular stent applications. Nevertheless, while functional properties and biocompatibility of MGs have been widely investigated and validated, a solid understanding of their mechanical performance during different stages in stent applications is still scarce. In this review, we provide a brief, yet comprehensive account on the general aspects of MGs regarding their formation, processing, structure, mechanical, and chemical properties. More specifically, we focus on the additive manufacturing (AM) of MGs, their outstanding high strength and resilience, and their fatigue properties. The interconnection between processing, structure and mechanical behaviour of MGs is highlighted. We further review the main categories of cardiovascular stents, the required mechanical properties of each category, and the conventional materials have been using to address these requirements. Then, we bridge between the mechanical requirements of stents, structural properties of MGs, and the corresponding stent design caveats. In particular, we discuss our recent findings on the feasibility of using MGs in self-expandable stents where our results show that a metallic glass based aortic stent can be crimped without mechanical failure. We further justify the safe deployment of this stent in human descending aorta. It is our intent with this review to inspire biodevice developers toward the realization of MG-based stents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Advances in Biomaterials for 3D Printing and Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 22; doi:10.3390/jfb9010022
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing has significant potential as a fabrication method in creating scaffolds for tissue engineering. The applications of 3D printing in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are limited by the variety of biomaterials that can be used in this technology.
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing has significant potential as a fabrication method in creating scaffolds for tissue engineering. The applications of 3D printing in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are limited by the variety of biomaterials that can be used in this technology. Many researchers have developed novel biomaterials and compositions to enable their use in 3D printing methods. The advantages of fabricating scaffolds using 3D printing are numerous, including the ability to create complex geometries, porosities, co-culture of multiple cells, and incorporate growth factors. In this review, recently-developed biomaterials for different tissues are discussed. Biomaterials used in 3D printing are categorized into ceramics, polymers, and composites. Due to the nature of 3D printing methods, most of the ceramics are combined with polymers to enhance their printability. Polymer-based biomaterials are 3D printed mostly using extrusion-based printing and have a broader range of applications in regenerative medicine. The goal of tissue engineering is to fabricate functional and viable organs and, to achieve this, multiple biomaterials and fabrication methods need to be researched. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Bioactive Glasses: From Parent 45S5 Composition to Scaffold-Assisted Tissue-Healing Therapies
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 24; doi:10.3390/jfb9010024
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
PDF Full-text (4206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, bioactive glasses (BGs) are mainly used to improve and support the healing process of osseous defects deriving from traumatic events, tumor removal, congenital pathologies, implant revisions, or infections. In the past, several approaches have been proposed in the replacement of extensive bone
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, bioactive glasses (BGs) are mainly used to improve and support the healing process of osseous defects deriving from traumatic events, tumor removal, congenital pathologies, implant revisions, or infections. In the past, several approaches have been proposed in the replacement of extensive bone defects, each one with its own advantages and drawbacks. As a result, the need for synthetic bone grafts is still a remarkable clinical challenge since more than 1 million bone-graft surgical operations are annually performed worldwide. Moreover, recent studies show the effectiveness of BGs in the regeneration of soft tissues, too. Often, surgical criteria do not match the engineering ones and, thus, a compromise is required for getting closer to an ideal outcome in terms of good regeneration, mechanical support, and biocompatibility in contact with living tissues. The aim of the present review is providing a general overview of BGs, with particular reference to their use in clinics over the last decades and the latest synthesis/processing methods. Recent advances in the use of BGs in tissue engineering are outlined, where the use of porous scaffolds is gaining growing importance thanks to the new possibilities given by technological progress extended to both manufacturing processes and functionalization techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Bioactive Glasses)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Bioactive Glasses: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 25; doi:10.3390/jfb9010025
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioactive glasses caused a revolution in healthcare and paved the way for modern biomaterial-driven regenerative medicine. The first 45S5 glass composition, invented by Larry Hench fifty years ago, was able to bond to living bone and to stimulate osteogenesis through the release of
[...] Read more.
Bioactive glasses caused a revolution in healthcare and paved the way for modern biomaterial-driven regenerative medicine. The first 45S5 glass composition, invented by Larry Hench fifty years ago, was able to bond to living bone and to stimulate osteogenesis through the release of biologically-active ions. 45S5-based glass products have been successfully implanted in millions of patients worldwide, mainly to repair bone and dental defects and, over the years, many other bioactive glass compositions have been proposed for innovative biomedical applications, such as soft tissue repair and drug delivery. The full potential of bioactive glasses seems still yet to be fulfilled, and many of today’s achievements were unthinkable when research began. As a result, the research involving bioactive glasses is highly stimulating and requires a cross-disciplinary collaboration among glass chemists, bioengineers, and clinicians. The present article provides a picture of the current clinical applications of bioactive glasses, and depicts six relevant challenges deserving to be tackled in the near future. We hope that this work can be useful to both early-stage researchers, who are moving with their first steps in the world of bioactive glasses, and experienced scientists, to stimulate discussion about future research and discover new applications for glass in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Bioactive Glasses)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top