Special Issue "RNA Viruses and Cancer"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Santanu Bose

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 210 567 1019
Fax: +1 210 567 6612
Interests: respiratory RNA virus infections; oncolytic RNA viruses; oncolytic RNA virus based anti-cancer therapeutics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

RNA viruses are important class of human pathogens that causes an array of human diseases. RNA viruses can also act as oncoviruses to promote cancer development (oncogenesis). For example, retrovirus like Human T lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been associated to T-cell leukemia, while hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been linked to development of liver cancer. Several RNA viruses also possess anti-cancer property. Known as oncolytic viruses, these viruses specifically “kills” cancer cells, but not normal cells. RNA viruses that possess oncolytic activity are vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), mumps virus, reovirus, coxsackie virus, poliovirus. In the last decade major stride has been made in understanding the mechanism of oncogenesis by HTLV-I and HCV. These have led to development of treatment regimen to combat virus-associated cancers. Similarly, research with oncolytic viruses has illustrated the possible usage of these natural or genetically engineered “anti-cancer” viruses to treat various cancers and solid tumors either alone or in combination with other non-virus cancer agents (radiation, chemotherapy etc). This has culminated in major progress for development of safe and efficacious oncolytic viruses that can specifically target cancer cells (and tumors). This special issue will publish original research papers and review articles on RNA oncovirues (HTLV-I and HCV) and oncolytic viruses that possess RNA genome.

Prof. Dr. Santanu Bose
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cancer
  • oncogenesis
  • oncolytic
  • RNA oncoviruses
  • therapy
  • RNA oncolytic viruses
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • Human T lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-I)

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus as Cutting Edge between Tumor and Host
Biology 2013, 2(3), 936-975; doi:10.3390/biology2030936
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 11 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) replicate selectively in tumor cells and exert anti-tumor cytotoxic activity. Among them, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), a bird RNA virus of the paramyxovirus family, appears outstanding. Its anti-tumor effect is based on: (i) oncolytic activity and (ii) immunostimulation. Together these
[...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) replicate selectively in tumor cells and exert anti-tumor cytotoxic activity. Among them, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), a bird RNA virus of the paramyxovirus family, appears outstanding. Its anti-tumor effect is based on: (i) oncolytic activity and (ii) immunostimulation. Together these activities facilitate the induction of post-oncolytic adaptive immunity. We will present milestones during the last 60 years of clinical evaluation of this virus. Two main strategies of clinical application were followed using the virus (i) as a virotherapeutic agent, which is applied systemically or (ii) as an immunostimulatory agent combined with tumor cells for vaccination of cancer patients. More recently, a third strategy evolved. It combines the strategies (i) and (ii) and includes also dendritic cells (DCs). The first step involves systemic application of NDV to condition the patient. The second step involves intradermal application of a special DC vaccine pulsed with viral oncolysate. This strategy, called NDV/DC, combines anti-cancer activity (oncolytic virotherapy) and immune-stimulatory properties (oncolytic immunotherapy) with the high potential of DCs (DC therapy) to prime naive T cells. The aim of such treatment is to first prepare the cancer-bearing host for immunocompetence and then to instruct the patient’s immune system with information about tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) of its own tumor together with danger signals derived from virus infection. This multimodal concept should optimize the generation of strong polyclonal T cell reactivity targeted against the patient’s TAAs and lead to the establishment of a long-lasting memory T cell repertoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Viruses and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Antitumor Virotherapy by Attenuated Measles Virus (MV)
Biology 2013, 2(2), 587-602; doi:10.3390/biology2020587
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antitumor virotherapy consists of the use of replication-competent viruses to infect and kill tumor cells preferentially, without damaging healthy cells. Vaccine-attenuated strains of measles virus (MV) are good candidates for this approach. Attenuated MV uses the CD46 molecule as a major entry receptor
[...] Read more.
Antitumor virotherapy consists of the use of replication-competent viruses to infect and kill tumor cells preferentially, without damaging healthy cells. Vaccine-attenuated strains of measles virus (MV) are good candidates for this approach. Attenuated MV uses the CD46 molecule as a major entry receptor into cells. This molecule negatively regulates the complement system and is frequently overexpressed by cancer cells to escape lysis by the complement system. MV exhibits oncolytic properties in many cancer types in vitro, and in mouse models. Phase I clinical trials using MV are currently underway. Here, we review the state of this therapeutic approach, with a focus on the effects of MV on the antitumor immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Viruses and Cancer)
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