Special Issue "RNA Viruses and Cancer"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Santanu Bose (Website)

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Phone: +1 210 567 1019
Fax: +1 210 567 6612
Interests: respiratory RNA virus infections; oncolytic RNA viruses; oncolytic RNA virus based anti-cancer therapeutics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

RNA viruses are important class of human pathogens that causes an array of human diseases. RNA viruses can also act as oncoviruses to promote cancer development (oncogenesis). For example, retrovirus like Human T lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been associated to T-cell leukemia, while hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been linked to development of liver cancer. Several RNA viruses also possess anti-cancer property. Known as oncolytic viruses, these viruses specifically “kills” cancer cells, but not normal cells. RNA viruses that possess oncolytic activity are vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), mumps virus, reovirus, coxsackie virus, poliovirus. In the last decade major stride has been made in understanding the mechanism of oncogenesis by HTLV-I and HCV. These have led to development of treatment regimen to combat virus-associated cancers. Similarly, research with oncolytic viruses has illustrated the possible usage of these natural or genetically engineered “anti-cancer” viruses to treat various cancers and solid tumors either alone or in combination with other non-virus cancer agents (radiation, chemotherapy etc). This has culminated in major progress for development of safe and efficacious oncolytic viruses that can specifically target cancer cells (and tumors). This special issue will publish original research papers and review articles on RNA oncovirues (HTLV-I and HCV) and oncolytic viruses that possess RNA genome.

Prof. Dr. Santanu Bose
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 600 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • cancer
  • oncogenesis
  • oncolytic
  • RNA oncoviruses
  • therapy
  • RNA oncolytic viruses
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • Human T lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-I)

Published Papers (2 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-2
Export citation of selected articles as:

Review

Open AccessReview Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus as Cutting Edge between Tumor and Host
Biology 2013, 2(3), 936-975; doi:10.3390/biology2030936
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 11 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) replicate selectively in tumor cells and exert anti-tumor cytotoxic activity. Among them, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), a bird RNA virus of the paramyxovirus family, appears outstanding. Its anti-tumor effect is based on: (i) oncolytic activity and (ii) immunostimulation. Together [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) replicate selectively in tumor cells and exert anti-tumor cytotoxic activity. Among them, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), a bird RNA virus of the paramyxovirus family, appears outstanding. Its anti-tumor effect is based on: (i) oncolytic activity and (ii) immunostimulation. Together these activities facilitate the induction of post-oncolytic adaptive immunity. We will present milestones during the last 60 years of clinical evaluation of this virus. Two main strategies of clinical application were followed using the virus (i) as a virotherapeutic agent, which is applied systemically or (ii) as an immunostimulatory agent combined with tumor cells for vaccination of cancer patients. More recently, a third strategy evolved. It combines the strategies (i) and (ii) and includes also dendritic cells (DCs). The first step involves systemic application of NDV to condition the patient. The second step involves intradermal application of a special DC vaccine pulsed with viral oncolysate. This strategy, called NDV/DC, combines anti-cancer activity (oncolytic virotherapy) and immune-stimulatory properties (oncolytic immunotherapy) with the high potential of DCs (DC therapy) to prime naive T cells. The aim of such treatment is to first prepare the cancer-bearing host for immunocompetence and then to instruct the patient’s immune system with information about tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) of its own tumor together with danger signals derived from virus infection. This multimodal concept should optimize the generation of strong polyclonal T cell reactivity targeted against the patient’s TAAs and lead to the establishment of a long-lasting memory T cell repertoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Viruses and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Antitumor Virotherapy by Attenuated Measles Virus (MV)
Biology 2013, 2(2), 587-602; doi:10.3390/biology2020587
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antitumor virotherapy consists of the use of replication-competent viruses to infect and kill tumor cells preferentially, without damaging healthy cells. Vaccine-attenuated strains of measles virus (MV) are good candidates for this approach. Attenuated MV uses the CD46 molecule as a major entry [...] Read more.
Antitumor virotherapy consists of the use of replication-competent viruses to infect and kill tumor cells preferentially, without damaging healthy cells. Vaccine-attenuated strains of measles virus (MV) are good candidates for this approach. Attenuated MV uses the CD46 molecule as a major entry receptor into cells. This molecule negatively regulates the complement system and is frequently overexpressed by cancer cells to escape lysis by the complement system. MV exhibits oncolytic properties in many cancer types in vitro, and in mouse models. Phase I clinical trials using MV are currently underway. Here, we review the state of this therapeutic approach, with a focus on the effects of MV on the antitumor immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Viruses and Cancer)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
Title:
Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Authors:
Tatsuo Kanda 1,*, Osamu Yokosuka 1 and Masao Omata 2,3
Affiliations:
1 Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba (260-8670), Japan; E-Mails: kanda2t@yahoo.co.jp (T.K.); yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.jp (O.Y.)
2
Yamanashi Hospitals (Central and Kita) Organization, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Koufu-shi, Yamanashi (400-8506), Japan; E-Mail: momata-tky@umin.ac.jp (M.O.)
3
University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (113-8655), Japan
Abstract:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a hepatotropic virus, is a single stranded-positive RNA virus with ~9600 nt. in length, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family. HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that HCV-coding proteins interact host-cell factors, which are involved in cell cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Severe inflammation and advanced liver fibrosis in the background of the liver is also associated with the incidence of HCV-related HCC. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in HCV-related liver diseases.

Type of Paper: Review
Title:
Reovirus Clinical Trials: Past, Present and Future Perspectives
Authors:
Chandini Thirukkumaran, Matt Coffey and Don Morris
Affiliation:
Department of Oncology, Tom baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, 1331 – 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N2; E-Mail: cmthiruk@ucalgary.ca
Abstract:
Reovirus, an ubiquitous double stranded RNA virus has been shown to target cancer but not normal cells under in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo conditions. These findings have provided pre-clinical data for the ongoing advanced stage clinical trials. To realize the full potential of this virus in a clinical setting, optimizing the host/tumour/virus microenvironment is imperative. Paradoxically, immune clearance of the virus presents a limitation in reovirus treatment of patients whereas harnessing the immune system towards an anti-tumour and immune surveillance of the cancer represents a pivotal advantage in patient treatment. This review presents a timely overview of the clinical trials that have been conduced to date: from primates to phase III trials, lessons learnt from these trials and future clinical trials that are planned. Strategies that will be developed to overcome hurdles faced in the clinic that may lead to attainment of the full clinical potential of this viral therapeutic that has versatile activity against a spectrum of histologies will also be discussed.

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Biology Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
biology@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Biology
Back to Top