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Entropy 2017, 19(3), 132; doi:10.3390/e19030132

Discrepancies between Conventional Multiscale Entropy and Modified Short-Time Multiscale Entropy of Photoplethysmographic Pulse Signals in Middle- and Old- Aged Individuals with or without Diabetes

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
2
Department of Medicine, Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
3
Departments of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
4
Department of Physics, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta 55164, Indonesia
5
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics II)
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Abstract

Multiscale entropy (MSE) of physiological signals may reflect cardiovascular health in diabetes. The classic MSE (cMSE) algorithm requires more than 750 signals for the calculations. The modified short-time MSE (sMSE) may have inconsistent outcomes compared with the cMSE at large time scales and in a disease status. Therefore, we compared the cMSE of 1500 (cMSE1500) consecutive and 1000 photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulse amplitudes with the sMSE of 500 PPG (sMSE500) pulse amplitudes of bilateral fingertips among middle- to old-aged individuals with or without type 2 diabetes. We discovered that cMSE1500 had the smallest value across scale factors 1–10, followed by cMSE1000, and then sMSE500 in both hands. The cMSE1500, cMSE1000 and sMSE500 did not differ at each scale factor in both hands of persons without diabetes and in the dominant hand of those with diabetes. In contrast, the sMSE500 differed at all scales 1–10 in the non-dominant hand with diabetes. In conclusion, autonomic dysfunction, prevalent in the non-dominant hand which had a low local physical activity in the person with diabetes, might be imprecisely evaluated by the sMSE; therefore, using more PPG signal numbers for the cMSE is preferred in such a situation. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiscale entropy; photoplethysmographic wave amplitudes; diabetes multiscale entropy; photoplethysmographic wave amplitudes; diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, G.-M.; Haryadi, B.; Yang, C.-M.; Chu, S.-C.; Yang, C.-C.; Wu, H.-T. Discrepancies between Conventional Multiscale Entropy and Modified Short-Time Multiscale Entropy of Photoplethysmographic Pulse Signals in Middle- and Old- Aged Individuals with or without Diabetes. Entropy 2017, 19, 132.

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