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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 15209-15226; doi:10.3390/ijms131115209
Article

Isolation and Structural Characterization of Lignin from Cotton Stalk Treated in an Ammonia Hydrothermal System

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1,*  and 1,2,*
1 Institute of Biomass Chemistry and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China 2 State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

To investigate the potential for the utilization of cotton stalk, ammonia hydrothermal treatment was applied to fractionate the samples into aqueous ammonia-soluble and ammonia-insoluble portions. The ammonia-soluble portion was purified to yield lignin fractions. The lignin fractions obtained were characterized by wet chemistry (carbohydrate analysis) and spectroscopy methods (FT-IR, 13C and 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy) as well as gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results showed that the cotton stalk lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (0.43%–1.29%) and had relatively low average molecular weights (1255–1746 g/mol). The lignin fractions belonged to typical G-S lignin, which was composed predominately of G-type units (59%) and noticeable amounts of S-type units (40%) together with a small amount of H-type units (~1%). Furthermore, the ammonia-extractable lignin fractions were mainly composed of β-O-4' inter-unit linkages (75.6%), and small quantities of β-β' (12.2%), together with lower amounts of β-5' carbon-carbon linkages (7.4%) and p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol end groups.
Keywords: cotton stalk; lignin; ammonia hydrothermal system; 13C NMR; HSQC cotton stalk; lignin; ammonia hydrothermal system; 13C NMR; HSQC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kang, S.; Xiao, L.; Meng, L.; Zhang, X.; Sun, R. Isolation and Structural Characterization of Lignin from Cotton Stalk Treated in an Ammonia Hydrothermal System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15209-15226.

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