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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 12978-12993; doi:10.3390/ijms140712978
Article

Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

1
,
1
,
2
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3,*  and 3,*
1 Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, 200, Sec. 7, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu Dist., Taichung 43301, Taiwan 2 Department of Applied Cosmetology, Hung Kuang University, 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu Dist., Taichung 43302, Taiwan 3 Department of Cosmetic Science, Providence University, 200, Sec. 7, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu Dist., Taichung 43301, Taiwan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.
Keywords: Achillea millefolium L.; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; essential oil; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages Achillea millefolium L.; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; essential oil; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Chou, S.-T.; Peng, H.-Y.; Hsu, J.-C.; Lin, C.-C.; Shih, Y. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12978-12993.

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