Next Article in Journal
Transplanted Neural Stem Cells Modulate Regulatory T, γδ T Cells and Corresponding Cytokines after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Intratumoral Decorin Gene Delivery by AAV Vector Inhibits Brain Glioblastomas and Prolongs Survival of Animals by Inducing Cell Differentiation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4415-4430; doi:10.3390/ijms15034415

Carvacrol and trans-Cinnamaldehyde Reduce Clostridium difficile Toxin Production and Cytotoxicity in Vitro

Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, 3636 Horse Barn Hill Road Ext., Unit 4040, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 21 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [589 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that causes a serious toxin-mediated enteric disease in humans. Reducing C. difficile toxin production could significantly minimize its pathogenicity and improve disease outcomes in humans. This study investigated the efficacy of two, food-grade, plant-derived compounds, namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and carvacrol (CR) in reducing C. difficile toxin production and cytotoxicity in vitro. Three hypervirulent C. difficile isolates were grown with or without the sub-inhibitory concentrations of TC or CR, and the culture supernatant and the bacterial pellet were collected for total toxin quantitation, Vero cell cytotoxicity assay and RT-qPCR analysis of toxin-encoding genes. The effect of CR and TC on a codY mutant and wild type C. difficile was also investigated. Carvacrol and TC substantially reduced C. difficile toxin production and cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The plant compounds also significantly down-regulated toxin production genes. Carvacrol and TC did not inhibit toxin production in the codY mutant of C. difficile, suggesting a potential codY-mediated anti-toxigenic mechanism of the plant compounds. The antitoxigenic concentrations of CR and TC did not inhibit the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. Our results suggest that CR and TC could potentially be used to control C. difficile, and warrant future studies in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant compounds; Clostridium difficile; toxins; gene expression plant compounds; Clostridium difficile; toxins; gene expression

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mooyottu, S.; Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Flock, G.; Bouillaut, L.; Upadhyay, A.; Sonenshein, A.L.; Venkitanarayanan, K. Carvacrol and trans-Cinnamaldehyde Reduce Clostridium difficile Toxin Production and Cytotoxicity in Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 4415-4430.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top