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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9386-9406; doi:10.3390/ijms15069386

The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

1
Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150001, China
2
College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
3
The Centre for Applied Aquatic Genomics, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China
4
Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute, Tianjin 300221, China
5
College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
6
Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuhan 430223, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. View Full-Text
Keywords: crucian carp; gibel carp; RNA-seq; genetic diversity; unisexual reproduction crucian carp; gibel carp; RNA-seq; genetic diversity; unisexual reproduction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, C.-Y.; Li, J.-T.; Kuang, Y.-Y.; Xu, R.; Zhao, Z.-X.; Hou, G.-Y.; Liang, H.-W.; Sun, X.-W. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9386-9406.

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