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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9907-9923; doi:10.3390/ijms15069907

The Influence of Ecological and Conventional Plant Production Systems on Soil Microbial Quality under Hops (Humulus lupulus)

* ,
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. BOX 201, Lublin 20-290, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2014 / Revised: 7 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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The knowledge about microorganisms—activity and diversity under hop production is still limited. We assumed that, different systems of hop production (within the same soil and climatic conditions) significantly influence on the composition of soil microbial populations and its functional activity (metabolic potential). Therefore, we compared a set of soil microbial properties in the field experiment of two hop production systems (a) ecological based on the use of probiotic preparations and organic fertilization (b) conventional—with the use of chemical pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Soil analyses included following microbial properties: The total number microorganisms, a bunch of soil enzyme activities, the catabolic potential was also assessed following Biolog EcoPlates®. Moreover, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) of PCR ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit (amoA) gene products. Conventional and ecological systems of hop production were able to affect soil microbial state in different seasonal manner. Favorable effect on soil microbial activity met under ecological, was more probably due to livestock-based manure and fermented plant extracts application. No negative influence on conventional hopyard soil was revealed. Both type of production fulfilled fertilizing demands. Under ecological production it was due to livestock-based manure fertilizers and fermented plant extracts application.
Keywords: diversity; organic farming; soil microbial functionality diversity; organic farming; soil microbial functionality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Oszust, K.; Frąc, M.; Gryta, A.; Bilińska, N. The Influence of Ecological and Conventional Plant Production Systems on Soil Microbial Quality under Hops (Humulus lupulus). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9907-9923.

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