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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2128; doi:10.3390/ijms18102128

Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases

1
Laboratory of Neuronal Networks, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Neurology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 52621 Ramat Gan, Israel
3
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel
4
SYSBIO, Centre of Systems Biology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract

Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; thrombin; proteinase activated receptors; activated protein C; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; multiple sclerosis; ischemic stroke; post-ischemic epilepsy; CNS cancer; addiction; mental health coagulation; thrombin; proteinase activated receptors; activated protein C; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; multiple sclerosis; ischemic stroke; post-ischemic epilepsy; CNS cancer; addiction; mental health
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

De Luca, C.; Virtuoso, A.; Maggio, N.; Papa, M. Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2128.

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