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Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13058-13074; doi:10.3390/s121013058

Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed

1
UNESCO MIRCEN: Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
2
Centre for Microscopy, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
3
Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
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Abstract

In this study the mitochondrion is regarded as a target to reveal compounds that may be used to combat various diseases. Consequently, the sexual structures of yeasts (with high mitochondrial activity) were identified as sensors to screen for various anti-mitochondrial drugs that may be toxic to humans and that are directed, amongst others, against fungal diseases and cancer. Strikingly, these sensors indicated that chloroquine is a potent pro-mitochondrial drug which stimulated yeast sexual reproduction. In addition, these sensors also showed that some Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-malarial drugs, antifungal and anticancer drugs are anti-mitochondrial. These yeast sensor bio-assays may fast track studies aimed at discovering new drugs as well as their mechanisms and should now be further evaluated for selectivity towards anti-/ pro-mitochondrials, fertility drugs and contraceptives, using in vitro, in vivo, in silico and omics research. View Full-Text
Keywords: anticancer; anti-malarial; anti-mitochondrial; chloroquine; Lipomyces; NanoSAM; preservation; pro-mitochondrial; sensors; yeasts anticancer; anti-malarial; anti-mitochondrial; chloroquine; Lipomyces; NanoSAM; preservation; pro-mitochondrial; sensors; yeasts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Swart, C.; Olivier, A.; Dithebe, K.; Pohl, C.; Wyk, P.; Swart, H.; Coetsee, E.; Kock, L. Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed. Sensors 2012, 12, 13058-13074.

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