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Sensors 2013, 13(4), 4781-4810; doi:10.3390/s130404781

On Calibrating the Sensor Errors of a PDR-Based Indoor Localization System

1
Department of CSIE, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
Department of CS, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2013 / Revised: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 10 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)

Abstract

Many studies utilize the signal strength of short-range radio systems (such as WiFi, ultrasound and infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a large number of beacon nodes within a building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system are costly and labor-intensive. Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization, which does not require the deployment of beacon nodes. In a PDR system, a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as a G-sensor and gyroscope) are used to estimate the distance and direction that a user travels. The effectiveness of a PDR system lies in its success in accurately estimating the user’s moving distance and direction. In this work, we propose a novel waist-mounted based PDR that can measure the user’s step lengths with a high accuracy. We utilize vertical acceleration of the body to calculate the user’s change in height during walking. Based on the Pythagorean Theorem, we can then estimate each step length using this data. Furthermore, we design a map matching algorithm to calibrate the direction errors from the gyro using building floor plans. The results of our experiment show that we can achieve about 98.26% accuracy in estimating the user’s walking distance, with an overall location error of about 0.48 m.
Keywords: pedestrian dead reckoning; waist-mounted; simple harmonic motion; ZUPT; map matching; floor plan pedestrian dead reckoning; waist-mounted; simple harmonic motion; ZUPT; map matching; floor plan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lan, K.-C.; Shih, W.-Y. On Calibrating the Sensor Errors of a PDR-Based Indoor Localization System. Sensors 2013, 13, 4781-4810.

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