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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2595-2615; doi:10.3390/md11072595
Article

Lithothamnion muelleri Controls Inflammatory Responses, Target Organ Injury and Lethality Associated with Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mice

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1 Laboratory of Resolution of Inflammatory Response, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil 2 Laboratory of Experimental Neuro-Immunopathology, Department of Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil 3 Host-Microbes Interaction Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil 5 Immunopharmacology, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Inflammation)
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Abstract

Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae) is a marine red alga, which is a member of a group of algae with anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study evaluated the effects of treatment with Lithothamnion muelleri extract (LM) in a model of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), using a model of adoptive splenocyte transfer from C57BL/6 donors into B6D2F1 recipient mice. Mice treated with LM showed reduced clinical signs of disease and mortality when compared with untreated mice. LM-treated mice had reduced tissue injury, less bacterial translocation, and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)). The polysaccharide-rich fraction derived from LM could inhibit leukocyte rolling and adhesion in intestinal venules, as assessed by intravital microscopy. LM treatment did not impair the beneficial effects of graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL). Altogether, our studies suggest that treatment with Lithothamnion muelleri has a potential therapeutic application in GVHD treatment.
Keywords: algae; chemokine; cytokine; GVHD; inflammation algae; chemokine; cytokine; GVHD; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Rezende, B.M.; Bernardes, P.T.T.; Resende, C.B.; Arantes, R.M.E.; Souza, D.G.; Braga, F.C.; Castor, M.G.M.; Teixeira, M.M.; Pinho, V. Lithothamnion muelleri Controls Inflammatory Responses, Target Organ Injury and Lethality Associated with Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mice. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2595-2615.

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