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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(3), 64;

Chitosan-Based Nanomedicine to Fight Genital Candida Infections: Chitosomes

Drug Transport and Delivery Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
Host Microbe Interactions Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
Personalized Dosage Form Design Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hitoshi Sashiwa and David Harding
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
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Vaginal infections are associated with high recurrence, which is often due to a lack of efficient treatment of complex vaginal infections comprised of several types of pathogens, especially fungi and bacteria. Chitosan, a mucoadhesive polymer with known antifungal effect, could offer a great improvement in vaginal therapy; the chitosan-based nanosystem could both provide antifungal effects and simultaneously deliver antibacterial drugs. We prepared chitosan-containing liposomes, chitosomes, where chitosan is both embedded in liposomes and surface-available as a coating layer. For antimicrobial activity, we entrapped metronidazole as a model drug. To prove that mucoadhesivness alone is not sufficient for successful delivery, we used Carbopol-containing liposomes as a control. All vesicles were characterized for their size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Chitosan-containing liposomes were able to assure the prolonged release of metronidazole. Their antifungal activity was evaluated in a C. albicans model; chitosan-containing liposomes exhibited a potent ability to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. The presence of chitosan was crucial for the system’s antifungal activity. The antifungal efficacy of chitosomes combined with antibacterial potential of the entrapped metronidazole could offer improved efficacy in the treatment of mixed/complex vaginal infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; liposomes; drug delivery; vaginal therapy; Candida albicans; metronidazole chitosan; liposomes; drug delivery; vaginal therapy; Candida albicans; metronidazole

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Andersen, T.; Mishchenko, E.; Flaten, G.E.; Sollid, J.U.E.; Mattsson, S.; Tho, I.; Škalko-Basnet, N. Chitosan-Based Nanomedicine to Fight Genital Candida Infections: Chitosomes. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 64.

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