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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(3), 1020-1036; doi:10.3390/ijerph10031020

Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production

1
Environment Canada, Pacific Environment Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1, Canada
2
Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
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Abstract

Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. View Full-Text
Keywords: Enterococci; antimicrobial; resistance; poultry litter; ground water; surface water; contamination Enterococci; antimicrobial; resistance; poultry litter; ground water; surface water; contamination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Furtula, V.; Jackson, C.R.; Farrell, E.G.; Barrett, J.B.; Hiott, L.M.; Chambers, P.A. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1020-1036.

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